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Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Red hind
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Image of Epinephelus guttatus (Red hind)
Epinephelus guttatus
Picture by Bryan, D.

رده بندی / Names اسامي عام | مترادف | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ماهبان شعاع باله > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range بوم شناسي

; دريايي وابسته به آب سنگ; اقیانوس رو (Ref. 51243); تغييرات عمق 100 - ? m (Ref. 89707).   Tropical; 36°N - 8°N, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222)

پراكنش كشورها | مناطق سازمان خوار و بار جهاني (FAO) | Ecosystems | ظهور | Point map | معرفي | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Paraíba, Brazil (Ref. 57756). The most common species of Epinephelus in the West Indies.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / سن

Maturity: Lm 25.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 5222); common length : 40.0 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 5217); بيشينه وزن گزارش شده: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5217); بيشينه سن گزارش شده: 22 سال ها (Ref. 31471)

توصيف مختصر ريخت شناسي | ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري

خارهاي باله پشتي (کل): 11; شعاع نرم باله پشتي (کل): 15-16; خارهاي باله مخرجي 3; شعاع نرم باله مخرجي: 8. Scales cycloid except for a ctenoid patch of variable size in the pectoral region. Greenish gray to light brown on the back grading to white ventrally, with numerous well-spaced dull orange-red to brown spots on the head, body and fins. Five faint diagonal bars formed by darker spots on the sides. No saddle-shaped blotch on caudal peduncle or along base of dorsal fin (Ref. 26938); further characterized by having body depth contained 2.7-3.1 times in standard length; head length 2.3-2.4 times in standard length; evenly serrate preopercle, without salient angle; posterior nostril larger than anterior nostril (Ref. 89707).

زيست شناسي     واژه نامه (بعنوان مثال epibenthic)

Found in shallow reefs and rocky bottoms. Usually solitary and territorial. Feed mainly on crabs (Calapa and Mithrax) and other crustaceans (alpheid shrimps and scyllarid lobsters), fishes (labrids and haemulids), and octopus. Some undergo sexual inversion at 28 cm TL; most fish larger than 40 cm are males. Important in terms of numbers caught and total weight of landings in the Caribbean. Easily approached by divers (Ref. 9710). Hermaphrodite species. Excellent food fish (Ref. 26938). Readily caught on hook and line and easily speared (Ref. 13442).

Life cycle and mating behavior بلوغ | تولید مثل | تخم ریزی | تخم ها | Fecundity | توزاد ( لارو)

Females rest on or close to the bottom, while males patrol around an area that consists of 1 to 5 females and defend this territory from other males. Form aggregation and reproduce almost exclusively within the aggregation period (Ref. 8557).

مآخذ اصلی Upload your references | مراجع | هماهنگ كننده : Heemstra, Phillip C. | همكاران

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

وضعيت در فهرست قرمز IUCN (Ref. 119314)

  حداقل نگرانی (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر برای انسان ها

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31172)





استفاده انسانی

ماهي گيري – شيلات: با ارزش تجاري بالا; ماهي ها ي سرگرم كننده: بله
FAO(ماهي گيري – شيلات: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

ابزارها

گزارش های ويژه

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منابع اينترنتي

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.01040 - 0.01327), b=3.04 (3.02 - 3.06), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
جهندگی (Ref. 69278):  متوسط, كمينه زمان لازم براي دو برابر شدن جمعيت 4/1 – 4/4 سال (K=0.12-0.24; tm=3; tmax=17; Fec=96,000).
Prior r = 0.43, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.64, Based on 2 stock assessments.
آسيب پذيری (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
طبقه قيمت (Ref. 80766):   High.