Epinephelus guttatus, Red hind : fisheries, gamefish

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Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Red hind
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Epinephelus guttatus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 100 - ? m (Ref. 89707).   熱帶; 36°N - 8°N, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA to Paraíba, Brazil (Ref. 57756). The most common species of Epinephelus in the West Indies.
西大西洋: 美國北卡羅萊那州到 Paraiba 巴西.(參考文獻 57756) 在西印度群島 Epinephelus 的最普遍種。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 25.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5222); common length : 40.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5217); 最大體重: 25.0 kg (Ref. 5217); 最大年齡: 22 年 (Ref. 31471)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 11; 背的軟條 (總數): 15-16; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8. Scales cycloid except for a ctenoid patch of variable size in the pectoral region. Greenish gray to light brown on the back grading to white ventrally, with numerous well-spaced dull orange-red to brown spots on the head, body and fins. Five faint diagonal bars formed by darker spots on the sides. No saddle-shaped blotch on caudal peduncle or along base of dorsal fin (Ref. 26938); further characterized by having body depth contained 2.7-3.1 times in standard length; head length 2.3-2.4 times in standard length; evenly serrate preopercle, without salient angle; posterior nostril larger than anterior nostril (Ref. 89707).
鱗片圓形的在胸的區域中除了一個可變大小的有櫛鱗小區塊。 灰綠色到淡褐色在背部上漸層色到腹側白色的, 有很多的在頭部,身體與鰭上有些間隔暗橘紅色到褐色的斑點。 五條模糊的斜橫帶側邊上由較黑的斑點形成了。 沒有鞍斑-形狀的斑塊在尾梗上或者沿著背鰭基底.(參考文獻 26938)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found in shallow reefs and rocky bottoms. Usually solitary and territorial. Feed mainly on crabs (Calapa and Mithrax) and other crustaceans (alpheid shrimps and scyllarid lobsters), fishes (labrids and haemulids), and octopus. Some undergo sexual inversion at 28 cm TL; most fish larger than 40 cm are males. Important in terms of numbers caught and total weight of landings in the Caribbean. Easily approached by divers (Ref. 9710). Hermaphrodite species. Excellent food fish (Ref. 26938). Readily caught on hook and line and easily speared (Ref. 13442).

發現於淺水礁區與岩石底部了。 通常獨居性的與領域性。 主要吃螃蟹 ( Calapa Mithrax) 與其他的甲殼動物 (槍蝦與 scyllarid 龍蝦) ,魚 (隆頭魚科的魚與 haemulids) 與章魚。 一些在 28 公分TL 歷經性別轉換; 大多數的魚大於 40 公分是雄性。 重要的根據捕獲數與卸魚重量的總重量在加勒比海。 藉著潛水者容易接近。 (參考文獻 9710) 雌雄同體種。 優良的食用魚.(參考文獻 26938) 輕易地在一支釣上面捕獲而且容易地獵殺了。 (參考文獻 13442)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Females rest on or close to the bottom, while males patrol around an area that consists of 1 to 5 females and defend this territory from other males. Form aggregation and reproduce almost exclusively within the aggregation period (Ref. 8557).西大西洋: 美國北卡羅萊那州到 Paraiba 巴西.(參考文獻 57756) 在西印度群島 Epinephelus 的最普遍種。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 22 November 2016

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated


  有雪卡魚毒中毒的報導 (Ref. 31172)


漁業: 高經濟性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋



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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.01011 - 0.01304), b=3.04 (3.01 - 3.07), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.3 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.12-0.24; tm=3; tmax=17; Fec=96,000).
Prior r = 0.43, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.64, Based on 2 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   High.