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Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758

Common carp
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Cypriniformes (Carps) 鯉形目 (Carps) > Cyprinidae (Minnows or carps) 鯉科 (Minnows or carps) > Cyprininae
Etymology: Cyprinus: Latin, cyprinus = carp (Ref. 45335);  carpio: carpio is the latinized form of carp (Ref. 1998). Cyprinus is the old world name for the carp (Ref. 10294).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; pH range: 6.5 - 9.0; dH range: 10 - 15; 河川洄游 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 29 m (Ref. 120823).   亞熱帶的; 3°C - 35°C (Ref. 12741); 54°N - 34°N, 12°E - 74°E (Ref. 59043)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe to Asia: Black, Caspian and Aral Sea basins. Introduced throughout the world. Wild stocks are only present naturally in rivers draining to the Black, Caspian and Aral Sea (Ref. 59043). A reophilic wild population in the Danube is assumed to be the origin of the European species; this population is now under threat (Ref. 13696).
到亞洲的歐洲: 歐洲,俄國,中國,印度與亞洲東南部。 第一個種之一被引入其他的國家中而且現在達到全球的分布。 證明的內陸的水產業與漁撈業貢獻非常重要。 在多瑙河的一個 reophilic 荒野族群被假定為歐洲種的起源; 這族群是現在處於威脅情況。 (參考文獻 13696) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 34.9, range 25 - 36 cm
Max length : 120 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 27549); common length : 31.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3561); 最大體重: 40.1 kg (Ref. 72380); 最大年齡: 38 年 (Ref. 72479)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 3 - 4; 背的軟條 (總數): 17-23; 臀棘 2-3; 臀鰭軟條: 5 - 6; 脊椎骨: 36 - 37. Diagnosed from other cyprinid species in Europe by having the following characters: 2 pairs of barbels; dorsal fin with 15-20½ branched rays; caudal fin deeply emarginate (Ref. 59043). Pharyngeal teeth 1, 1, 3:3, 1,1, robust, molar-like with crown flattened or somewhat furrowed. Scales large and thick. `Wild carp ' is generally distinguished by its less stocky build with height of body 1:3.2-4.8 in standard length. Very variable in form, proportions, squamation, development of fins, and color. Caudal fin with 3 spines and 17-19 rays (Ref. 2196). Last simple anal ray bony and serrated posteriorly; 4 barbels; 17-20 branched dorsal rays; body grey to bronze (Ref. 43281). Also Ref. 3398, 3410.
咽齒 1,1,3:3,1,1, 結實的, 臼齒狀的具有冠平的或略微犁了。 鱗片大而厚的。 荒野鯉魚 ' 通常被藉著它的區別比較不矮胖在標準的長度中有身體 1:3.2-4.8 的高度建立。 形式,比例,鱗片的排列,鰭的發展與顏色變異很大。 尾鰭有 3根棘與 17-19個鰭條。 (參考文獻 2196) 最後單一的臀鰭鰭條多骨的而且在後部地鋸齒狀的; 4個觸鬚; 17-20個分枝的背鰭鰭條; 身體灰色的到青銅色的.(參考文獻 43281) 也參考文獻 3398,3410.

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits warm, deep, slow-flowing and still waters such as lowland rivers and large, well vegetated lakes (Ref. 59043). Hardy and tolerant of a wide variety of conditions but generally favor large water bodies with slow flowing or standing water and soft bottom sediments. Thrive in large turbid rivers (Ref. 1998). Most active at dusk and dawn. Both adults and juveniles feed on a variety of benthic organisms and plant material. Breeds along shores or in backwaters. Adults often undertake considerable spawning migration to suitable backwaters and flooded meadows. Larvae survive only in very warm water among shallow submerged vegetation (Ref. 59043). Occurs at depths of <30m (Ref. 120613) and found sucking in floating insects at the surface (Ref. 120823). River regulation and hybridization with domesticated stocks, East Asian congeners and their hybrids have caused continuous decline of wild populations (Ref. 59043). Utilized fresh and frozen (Ref. 9987). Aquarium keeping: in groups of 5 or more individuals; minimum aquarium size >200 cm; not recommended for home aquariums (Ref. 51539).

大洋底棲性魚種.(參考文獻 58302) 在一個 3-35個 ° C. 的溫差出現 強韌與寬容的各式各樣環境但是通常喜歡大的水體具有慢的流動或靜止的水域與軟質底部沉澱物。 普遍的鯉魚繁榮較大時混濁的河。 他們是雜食性的, 主要捕食水生昆蟲,甲殼動物,環節動物,軟體動物,雜草與樹種子,野生的米,水生植物與藻類; 主要地藉著翻掘在沉澱物中.(參考文獻 1998) 產卵於被產黏性卵在淺水植物中的春天與夏天中。 (參考文獻 7248) 一條母魚 47 公分長生產大約 300,000個卵。 (參考文獻 6885) 幼魚可能被被北方青旗魚,大梭魚與大嘴花鱸捕食。 成魚連根拔起而且破壞水下的水生植物因此可能是對鴨子與原生的魚族群有害.(參考文獻 1998) 生鮮使用與冷凍.(參考文獻 9987) 水族館保持: 形成 5個或更多個體的群體; 水族館最小體型 >200 公分; 不為家庭的水族箱魚推薦。 (參考文獻 51539)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawn in marginal, shallow, weed-infested areas. A polytypic plastic species with a marked tendency to produce `varieties' and `races' in response to selective breeding and environmental influences. Carp is polygamous. A spawning female is usually followed by several males. Under tropical conditions carp breeds throughout the year. It is a seasonal spawner in temperate waters (Ref. 185). Females are known to lay more than a million eggs in a season; breeds at a temperature range of 15° C to 20°C; eggs hatch in 4 days (Ref. 6028). Obligatory plant spawners (Ref. 7471). "Adults often make considerable spawning migrations to suitable backwaters and flooded meadows. Individual females spawn with a few males in dense vegetation. The sticky eggs are attached to water plants or other submerged objects. Reproductive success is restricted to years when the water level starts rising in May and when high temperatures and flooding of terrestrial vegetation last for a long period during May and June" (Ref. 59043).到亞洲的歐洲: 歐洲,俄國,中國,印度與亞洲東南部。 第一個種之一被引入其他的國家中而且現在達到全球的分布。 證明的內陸的水產業與漁撈業貢獻非常重要。 在多瑙河的一個 reophilic 荒野族群被假定為歐洲種的起源; 這族群是現在處於威脅情況。 (參考文獻 13696) 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  極危 (CR) (A2ce); Date assessed: 01 August 1996

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

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人類使用

漁業: 高經濟性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 商業性
FAO(養殖: 產生, 魚種描繪; 漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.01711 - 0.02026), b=2.94 (2.92 - 2.96), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.1   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.2 (3.5 - 6.5) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 41 growth studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.10-0.30; tm=1-3; tmax=20; Fec=36,000-2,000,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.