Oreochromis variabilis, Victoria tilapia : fisheries, aquaculture, aquarium

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Oreochromis variabilis (Boulenger, 1906)

Victoria tilapia
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Image of Oreochromis variabilis (Victoria tilapia)
Oreochromis variabilis
Male picture by Loiselle, P.V.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) 麗魚科 (Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Boulenger.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 淡水 底中水层性; 深度上下限 4 - 49 m.   热带; 23°C - 28°C (Ref. 3)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Africa: Lake Victoria and its affluent rivers (Ref. 5166, 34290, 118630, 118638), Victoria Nile above Murchison Falls (Ref. 5166) and Lakes Kyoga, Kwania and Salisbury (Ref. 5166), but strongly declining or disappeared in many areas (Ref. 52331), apparently replaced by Oreochromis niloticus (Ref. 34290). Introduced into several dams in Lake Victoria region (Ref. 118638).
非洲: 维多利亚湖与它的支流; 在 Murchison 秋天上面的维多利亚尼罗河; 湖 Kyoga 湖, Kwania 与索尔斯堡.(参考文献 5166) 在维多利亚湖流域的许多区域中强烈地它是衰退或者消退。 (参考文献 52331)

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 34290)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 16 - 18; 背的软条 (总数): 10-12; 臀棘 3; 臀鳍软条: 9 - 11; 脊椎骨: 29 - 31. Diagnosis: Large bodied tilapiine cichlid; females and unripe males have a grey/green body and fins with 6-7 dark vertical bars on the flank; ripening males with yellowish chin, and notable bright red/orange margins to the dorsal and caudal fins; fully ripe males are black with a blue sheen on the head, bright red/orange margins to the dorsal and caudal fins and a long, branched whitish or yellow genital tassel (Ref. 118638). The breeding male of Oreochromis variabilis is distinguished from O. niloticus and O. esculentus by the intense orange to scarlet colour of the margin of the dorsal fin and the long, tasselled genital papilla, as well as by the general body colour; the orange dorsal margin is present also in grown females and non-breeding males, though narrower and less brilliant (Ref. 2). Other distinguishing characters are: the tilapia-mark is absent in young longer than 15 mm standard length, whereas in O. esculentus it is conspicuous and with a clear ring up to about 70 mm standard length and may still be detected up to 170 mm; the profile usually has a convexity immediately before the eye; there are usually two rows of scales on the cheek in contrast to usually three in O. esculentus; in half-grown and full-grown fishes there are 4-7 series of teeth in the jaws, 3-5 in O. esculentus; the ratio depth of preorbital to length of head is more than 1/5 in O. variabilis, 1/5 or less in O. esculentus; longer gill-rakers; and whereas O. esculentus does not mount beyond the estuaries, O. variabilis enters rivers from the lake (Ref. 2). Oreochromis variabilis differs from both O. malagarasi and O. upembae, its nearest relatives, in the suppression in most phases of blotches on the flanks, in the body colour of mature males, which is blue-grey to blue-black vs. yellowish in O. upembae, in the shape of the profile, which in O. malagarasi and O. upembae lacks the 'bump' before the eye, a lower modal number of soft dorsal and anal rays, and a higher modal number of vertebrae; Oreochromis upembae also differs from O. variabilis in having usually narrow vertical stripes on the caudal fin (Ref. 2).
背鳍的边缘橘色的在雌性与非繁殖期的雄性中; 密集橘色的对在繁殖期的雄性中的深红色。 在眼正前方的轮廓凸状。 通常在颊上的 2个列的鳞片。 尾部的不很重地覆有鳞片的。 保存的标本时常在梗的顶端上显示 2-3个模糊的黑色侧面中央的斑块与一。 体色灰色的-绿色.(参考文献 4967)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults feed predominantly on bottom algae, some of the planktonic organisms that are found in their stomachs are probably those which have settled on the bottom or were washed shorewards from open waters but they do feed directly on plankton (Ref. 2). A maternal mouthbrooder, males make complex courtship structures in the substrate (Ref. 118638). Was a major component of the fisheries catch in Lake Victoria (Ref. 118638). Some pond culture attempted (Ref. 118638). IUCN conservation status is critically endangered (Ref. 118638).

生存在温度范围从 23.0-28.0 °C 。 (参考文献 3) 偶然地形成鱼群。 主要日行性。 成鱼吃主要在底部藻类上,一些浮游性生物那是发现于他们的腹部是可能那些哪里有在底部上安顿或者被冲刷向岸的从开放的水域但是它们直接地以浮游生物为食.(参考文献 2)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Nests are built on sandy bottoms in shallow waters. Each nest consists of a central shallow saucer 13-15 cm in diameter, around which is a circle of small pits. This structure is the center of a larger pit, 30-39 cm in diameter. Breeding pair makes the T-stand. Female lays batches of eggs; picks them up and sucks at the male's genital tassel. 非洲: 维多利亚湖与它的支流; 在 Murchison 秋天上面的维多利亚尼罗河; 湖 Kyoga 湖, Kwania 与索尔斯堡.(参考文献 5166) 在维多利亚湖流域的许多区域中强烈地它是衰退或者消退。 (参考文献 52331)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Kullander, Sven O. | 合作者

Trewavas, E., 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. British Mus. Nat. Hist., London, UK. 583 p. (Ref. 2)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  极度濒危 (CR) (B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)); Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 商业性; 养殖: 实验的; 水族馆: 商业性
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Estimates based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.00723 - 0.03476), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.0   ±0.00 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 3.1 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (Fec=500).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.