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Oreochromis mortimeri (Trewavas, 1966)

Kariba tilapia
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Oreochromis mortimeri
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drawing shows typical fish in this Family.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) 慈鯛科魚類 (Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335);  mortimeri: Named for M.A.E. Mortimer, a fish culturist who conducted a great deal of productive fish culture research in Zambia between 1951 and 1965 (Ref. 13337).  More on author: Trewavas.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 淡水 底中水層性.   熱帶; 10°S - 19°S

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Africa: Middle Zambezi and its tributaries, including Luangwa River (except probably the upper reaches of its tributaries Lunsemfwa and Mulungwishi above the escarpment), Hunyani River and Lake Kariba (Ref. 5166). Introduced to Kipopo and the Lufira River (upper Congo River basin) in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ref. 1978).
非洲: 中央尚比西河與它的支流, 包括 Luangwa 河 (可能除它的支流 Lunsemfwa 的上游與在陡坡上面的 Mulungwishi) , Hunyani 河與卡裡巴湖。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 22.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 5309); 最大體重: 4.1 kg (Ref. 13337); 最大年齡: 8 年 (Ref. 2)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 16 - 17; 背的軟條 (總數): 10-13; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 10 - 12; 脊椎骨: 29 - 30. Diagnosis: jaws greatly enlarged in mature males; scales in 2-3 rows on cheek; caudal peduncle relatively shorter than in O. mossambicus (Ref. 2). In life greenish grey (Ref. 2), green-blue (Ref. 52307) or grey-blue with a darker spot on each scale (Ref. 2, 52307). Females and immature males often with 1-3 dark mid-lateral blotches (Ref. 2, 52307), which may appear only as the fish dies (Ref. 2). Breeding males: predominantly iridescent blue-green to bronze (Ref. 2, 52307), with iridescent spots on dorsal and caudal fins (Ref. 2), a dorsal fin with a red edge that is not as pronounced as in O. mossambicus, and a narrow (as opposed to wide) red band at posterior end of caudal fin (Ref. 12524, 13337).
顎在成熟的雄性中明顯增大。 在頰上的 2-3 列中的鱗片。 活著時呈綠色的灰色或灰色的-藍色在每個鱗片上具有一個較黑的斑點。 雌性與不成熟的雄性時常 1-3個黑色側面中央的斑塊, 那可能只有在魚死亡時出現。 繁殖期的雄性主要藍色虹彩的-綠色到青銅色的, 與彩虹色的斑點在背鰭與尾鰭鰭上。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Forms schools (Ref. 2, 54048). Is mainly diurnal; salt-tolerant (Ref. 2). Feeds mainly on (filamentous) algae (Ref. 2, 12524, 13337, 52307, 54048) and diatoms, as well as higher plants (Ref. 2, 52307), dipterous larvae, cladocerans, copepods (Ref. 2), aquatic and terrestrial insects, shrimps, worms (Ref. 12524, 13337, 54048) and mollusks (Ref. 54048). Mouthbrooder; spawns several times per year (Ref. 12524, 13337, 54048).

形成魚群; 主要日行性。 主要吃菌絲藻與矽藻, 以及較高等的植物,雙翅目昆蟲幼生,水蚤與橈腳類的動物.(參考文獻 2)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Nest a saucer-shaped depression with a raised mound in the middle (Ref. 12524, 13337), made by the male in a breeding arena in shallow water down to about 4m (Ref. 54048). Females are lured to these through male courtship displays; female collects eggs in mouth after spawning and fertilisation, and moves off; mouthbrooding females may shoal together and do not feed at this time; eggs hatch after about ten days but remain in the mouth for a further few days; juveniles make short feeding sorties once the storage yolk is used up, but seldom stray far and dart into her mouth when danger threatens; after about another 10 days young are released in warm shallow water in the margins (nursery areas), where they feed independently in small shoals (Ref. 54048). Young released from mouthbrooding female are about 1cm long (Ref. 2). Female returns to the breeding arena where she spawns again (Ref. 54048).非洲: 中央尚比西河與它的支流, 包括 Luangwa 河 (可能除它的支流 Lunsemfwa 的上游與在陡坡上面的 Mulungwishi) , Hunyani 河與卡裡巴湖。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Kullander, Sven O. | 合作者

Trewavas, E., 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. British Mus. Nat. Hist., London, UK. 583 p. (Ref. 2)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  極危 (CR) (A2ae); Date assessed: 01 March 2007

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 實驗的; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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捕食者
生態毒物學
繁殖
成熟度
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孕卵數

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.00888 - 0.03903), b=3.03 (2.85 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.2   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (tmax=8).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.