(Perch-likes) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Sarotherodon: Greek, saros, -ou = sawdust + Greek, ther = animal * Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Rüppell.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; 海; 新鮮な水; 汽水性の 底生の; pH range: 7.0 - 8.0; dH range: 9 - 19; 深さの範囲 3 - ? m (Ref. 5723). Tropical; 27°N - 14°S, 18°W - 31°E
Africa: Lagoons and estuaries from Mauritania to Cameroon. Introduced to several countries in Asia, USA and Europe (Ref. 21). At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction. Previously, three subspecies were recognized: Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii, Sarotherodon melanotheron leonensis and Sarotherodon melanotheron melanotheron.
Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢
Maturity: Lm 13.2, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm SL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 31256); common length : 17.5 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 12193)
背面の脊椎 (合計): 15 - 17; 背鰭 (合計): 10-12; 肛門の骨 3; 臀鰭: 8 - 10; 脊つい: 26 - 28. Diagnosis: length of caudal peduncle 0.6-0.9 times in its depth (Ref. 53405). Melanic areas in adult usually present on lower parts of head, on cleithrum and on apices of caudal and soft dorsal fins; occasional irregular and asymmetrical spots on flanks probably representing vertical bars; median spot or transverse bar on nape rather constant (Ref. 2).
This species can tolerate high salinity (Ref. 5723). It occurs abundantly in mangrove areas and ventures in to both fresh, like lower reaches of streams (Ref. 5723) and salt waters in native and non-native ranges (Ref. 46816, 53405). In West Africa, this species is confined to brackish lagoons and estuaries, and is abundant in the mangrove zone (Ref. 2). Forms schools; is mainly nocturnal with intermittent daytime feeding. Feeds on aufwuchs and detritus (Ref. 2), as well as on bivalves and zooplankton (Ref. 28587). Feeding behaviour: picking up and swallowing "bites" (no gill rakers) (Ref. 55661).
Life cycle and mating behavior
成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | 卵 | 生産力 | 幼生
Spawns in shallow water close inshore. Initiative in courtship, pit digging and mating activities are taken by the female. Eventually a male is stimulated to react in a mainly passive manner and a pair-bond is established; sexual dimorphism minimal; no T-stand by the partners during fertilization. Exhibits mouth-brooding habit (Ref. 6298). Males exclusively incubate the eggs (Ref. 2, 6309).
Trewavas, E. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Sarotherodon. p. 425-437. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 4999)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
水産業: 商業; 水産養殖: 商業; 水族館・水槽: 商業
協力者画像Stamps, Coins Misc.音シガテラ（食中毒の名前）速度泳ぐ 型式カマOtoliths脳視覚
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00845 - 0.02473), b=3.03 (2.88 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.19 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278
): 手段, １．４年～４．４年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.16).
弱み (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .