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Sarotherodon melanotheron Rüppell, 1852

Blackchin tilapia
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Sarotherodon melanotheron
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Cichlidae (Cichlids) 慈鯛科魚類 (Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Sarotherodon: Greek, saros, -ou = sawdust + Greek, ther = animal * Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Rüppell.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 居於水底的; pH range: 7.0 - 8.0; dH range: 9 - 19; 深度上下限 3 - ? m (Ref. 5723).   熱帶; 27°N - 14°S, 18°W - 31°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Africa: Lagoons and estuaries from Mauritania to Cameroon. Introduced to several countries in Asia, USA and Europe (Ref. 21). At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction. Previously, three subspecies were recognized: Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii, Sarotherodon melanotheron leonensis and Sarotherodon melanotheron melanotheron.
非洲: 從塞內加爾 (參考文獻 4537) 到喀麥隆南部的半淡鹹水。 引進了在亞洲,美國與歐洲的一些國家。 (參考文獻 21) 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 13.2, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 31256); common length : 17.5 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 12193)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 15 - 17; 背的軟條 (總數): 10-12; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8 - 10; 脊椎骨: 26 - 28. Diagnosis: length of caudal peduncle 0.6-0.9 times in its depth (Ref. 53405). Melanic areas in adult usually present on lower parts of head, on cleithrum and on apices of caudal and soft dorsal fins; occasional irregular and asymmetrical spots on flanks probably representing vertical bars; median spot or transverse bar on nape rather constant (Ref. 2).
在成魚的黑色的區域通常位於頭部下半部之上, 在匙骨與尾部與軟背鰭的頂點上; 在側面上的偶然的不規則而不對稱的斑點可能代表縱帶; 在後頸上的一個中央的斑點或橫跨的橫帶相當持續。

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

This species can tolerate high salinity (Ref. 5723). It occurs abundantly in mangrove areas and ventures in to both fresh, like lower reaches of streams (Ref. 5723) and salt waters in native and non-native ranges (Ref. 46816, 53405). In West Africa, this species is confined to brackish lagoons and estuaries, and is abundant in the mangrove zone (Ref. 2). Forms schools; is mainly nocturnal with intermittent daytime feeding. Feeds on aufwuchs and detritus (Ref. 2), as well as on bivalves and zooplankton (Ref. 28587). Feeding behaviour: picking up and swallowing "bites" (no gill rakers) (Ref. 55661).

主要河口。 豐富的在紅樹林區域中而且冒險嘗試在對在原生與非原生的範圍中的生鮮魚肉和鹽水域.(參考文獻 46816) 形成魚群; 對間歇的白天進食感到主要地夜行。 吃附著生物與碎屑 (參考文獻 2), 以及二枚貝與浮游動物。 (參考文獻 28587) 出現於溪流下游而且能容忍高的鹽度.(參考文獻 5723)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawns in shallow water close inshore. Initiative in courtship, pit digging and mating activities are taken by the female. Eventually a male is stimulated to react in a mainly passive manner and a pair-bond is established; sexual dimorphism minimal; no T-stand by the partners during fertilization. Exhibits mouth-brooding habit (Ref. 6298). Males exclusively incubate the eggs (Ref. 2, 6309).非洲: 從塞內加爾 (參考文獻 4537) 到喀麥隆南部的半淡鹹水。 引進了在亞洲,美國與歐洲的一些國家。 (參考文獻 21) 至少一個國家報告引入後的不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Kullander, Sven O. | 合作者

Trewavas, E. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Sarotherodon. p. 425-437. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 4999)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  未評估 

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  潛能有害之物





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 水族館: 商業性
FAO(養殖: 產生; ; publication : search) | FishSource |

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生態毒物學
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孕卵數

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00845 - 0.02473), b=3.03 (2.88 - 3.18), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  2.5   ±0.19 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.16).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.