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Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Greenland shark
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板鰓亜鋼(サメとエイ類) (sharks and rays) > Squaliformes (Bramble, sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Somniosidae (Sleeper sharks)
Etymology: Somniosus: Latin, somnus = sleep (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海; 汽水性の 底生の漂泳性; 海洋回遊性 (Ref. 119696); 深さの範囲 0 - 2992 m (Ref. 119696), usually 200 - 600 m (Ref. 35388).   Boreal; -2°C - 17°C (Ref. 119696); 83°N - 35°N, 95°W - 61°E

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Arctic and North Atlantic: Canadian Arctic at Resolute Bay to Baffin Bay, southward in western Atlantic to Cape Cod, eastward to Greenland, Iceland, Arctic Ocean off Svalbard and Franz Josef Land, and the Barents and White Seas southward in the eastern Atlantic to the Kattegat and west of Ireland; rare records known farther south as well as in the Arctic..

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm ?, range 244 - 427 cm
Max length : 427 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 247); 550.0 cm TL (female); 最大公表体重: 775.0 kg (Ref. 4699); 最大記録サイズ: 392 年 (Ref. 110949)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 0; 背鰭 (合計): 0; 肛門の骨 0; 臀鰭: 0; 脊つい: 41 - 44. A gigantic, heavily-bodied dogfish shark with a moderately long, rounded snout and small, low dorsal fins; lower caudal lobe long; upper jaw with small single-cusped teeth and lower jaw with moderate-sized, bent-cusped, slicing teeth (Ref. 5578). Medium grey or brown in color, sometimes with transverse dark bands or small light spots (Ref. 5578).

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Found on continental and insular shelves and upper slopes down to at least 1,200 m (Ref. 247) and to as deep as 2,200 m (Ref. 55584). Epibenthic-pelagic (Ref. 58426). In the Arctic and boreal Atlantic, it occurs inshore in the intertidal and at the surface in shallow bays and river mouths during colder months, retreating to depths of 180-550 m when the temperature rises (Ref. 247). Reported to be found in temperatures from -1.8° to 17.2°C but commonly below 5°C at with salinity range of 29.4-35.5. It is capable of undertaking long migrations (Ref. 119696). Feeds on pelagic and bottom fishes (herring, Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, capelin, redfish, sculpins, lumpfish, cod, haddock, Atlantic halibut, Greenland halibut and skates (Ref. 5951)), sharks and skates (Ref. 5578), seals and small cetaceans, sea birds, squids, crabs, amphipods, marine snails, brittle stars, sea urchins, and jellyfish (Ref. 247, 58240). Radiocarbon dating of eye lens nuclei from 28 caught female Greenland sharks (81-502 cm TL) revealed a life span of at least 272 years, the oldest being nearly 400 years; age of sexual maturity is about 150 years. This large species is slow-growing (Ref. 110949). Petromyzon marinus was reported to have been attached to S. microcephalus (Ref. 58185). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Utilized fresh and dried for human and sled-dog food (flesh is said to be toxic when fresh); Eskimos also used the skin to make boots, and the sharp lower dental bands as knives for cutting hair (Ref. 247). A very sluggish shark (Ref. 28609). Reports in literature of lengths exceeding 640 cm TL (e.g. up to 730 cm TL in Ref. 247) remain unverified. Common length 244-427 cm TL (Ref. 119696).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Ovoviviparous (Ref. 247). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター | 協力者

Yano, K., J.D. Stevens and L.J.V. Compagno, 2004. A review of the systematics of the sleeper shark genus Somniosus with redescriptions of Somniosus (Somniosus) antarcticus and Somniosus (Rhinoscymnus) longus (Squaliformes: Somniosidae). Ichthyol. Res. 51:360-373. (Ref. 50224)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 120744)

  絶滅危惧に近い (NT) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

人間に対する脅威

  Poisonous to eat (Ref. 4690)





Human uses

水産業: 少数商業の; ゲームフィッシュ: はい
FAO(水産業: 代謝, 種の外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

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共通名の
類義語
代謝
捕食動物
生態毒性
繁殖
成熟
放精
卵の集合体
生産力

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水産養殖の紹介
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シガテラ(食中毒の名前)
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インターネットの情報源

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.6 - 9.3, mean 3.6 (based on 1058 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5313   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00301 - 0.00914), b=3.17 (3.02 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  非常に低い, 14年以上の倍増期間の最小個体群 (Fec=10; K=0.0075; assuming tm>10).
弱み (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Low.