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Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Greenland shark
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(كوسه ها و سپرماهيان) (sharks and rays) > Squaliformes (Bramble, sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Somniosidae (Sleeper sharks)
Etymology: Somniosus: Latin, somnus = sleep (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range بوم شناسي

; دريايي; لب شور موجوداتی که در محدوده وسیعی از آبهای آزاد از نزدیک بستر و یا روی کف بستر، در قسمت های میان آبی تا سطح آب و در برخی گونه ها با قابلیت پرواز، زندگی و تغذیه می کنند.; اقیانوس رو (Ref. 119696); تغييرات عمق 0 - 2992 m (Ref. 119696), usually 200 - 600 m (Ref. 35388).   Boreal; -2°C - 17°C (Ref. 119696); 83°N - 35°N, 95°W - 61°E

پراكنش كشورها | مناطق سازمان خوار و بار جهاني (FAO) | Ecosystems | ظهور | Point map | معرفي | Faunafri

Arctic and North Atlantic: Canadian Arctic at Resolute Bay to Baffin Bay, southward in western Atlantic to Cape Cod, eastward to Greenland, Iceland, Arctic Ocean off Svalbard and Franz Josef Land, and the Barents and White Seas southward in the eastern Atlantic to the Kattegat and west of Ireland; rare records known farther south as well as in the Arctic..

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / سن

Maturity: Lm ?, range 244 - 427 cm
Max length : 427 cm TL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 247); 550.0 cm TL (female); بيشينه وزن گزارش شده: 775.0 kg (Ref. 4699); بيشينه سن گزارش شده: 392 سال ها (Ref. 110949)

توصيف مختصر ريخت شناسي | ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري

خارهاي باله پشتي (کل): 0; شعاع نرم باله پشتي (کل): 0; خارهاي باله مخرجي 0; شعاع نرم باله مخرجي: 0; مهره ها: 41 - 44. A gigantic, heavily-bodied dogfish shark with a moderately long, rounded snout and small, low dorsal fins; lower caudal lobe long; upper jaw with small single-cusped teeth and lower jaw with moderate-sized, bent-cusped, slicing teeth (Ref. 5578). Medium grey or brown in color, sometimes with transverse dark bands or small light spots (Ref. 5578).

زيست شناسي     واژه نامه (بعنوان مثال epibenthic)

Found on continental and insular shelves and upper slopes down to at least 1,200 m (Ref. 247) and to as deep as 2,200 m (Ref. 55584). Epibenthic-pelagic (Ref. 58426). In the Arctic and boreal Atlantic, it occurs inshore in the intertidal and at the surface in shallow bays and river mouths during colder months, retreating to depths of 180-550 m when the temperature rises (Ref. 247). Reported to be found in temperatures from -1.8° to 17.2°C but commonly below 5°C at with salinity range of 29.4-35.5. It is capable of undertaking long migrations (Ref. 119696). Feeds on pelagic and bottom fishes (herring, Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, capelin, redfish, sculpins, lumpfish, cod, haddock, Atlantic halibut, Greenland halibut and skates (Ref. 5951)), sharks and skates (Ref. 5578), seals and small cetaceans, sea birds, squids, crabs, amphipods, marine snails, brittle stars, sea urchins, and jellyfish (Ref. 247, 58240). Radiocarbon dating of eye lens nuclei from 28 caught female Greenland sharks (81-502 cm TL) revealed a life span of at least 272 years, the oldest being nearly 400 years; age of sexual maturity is about 150 years. This large species is slow-growing (Ref. 110949). Petromyzon marinus was reported to have been attached to S. microcephalus (Ref. 58185). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Utilized fresh and dried for human and sled-dog food (flesh is said to be toxic when fresh); Eskimos also used the skin to make boots, and the sharp lower dental bands as knives for cutting hair (Ref. 247). A very sluggish shark (Ref. 28609). Reports in literature of lengths exceeding 640 cm TL (e.g. up to 730 cm TL in Ref. 247) remain unverified. Common length 244-427 cm TL (Ref. 119696).

Life cycle and mating behavior بلوغ | تولید مثل | تخم ریزی | تخم ها | Fecundity | توزاد ( لارو)

Ovoviviparous (Ref. 247). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

مآخذ اصلی Upload your references | مراجع | هماهنگ كننده | همكاران

Yano, K., J.D. Stevens and L.J.V. Compagno, 2004. A review of the systematics of the sleeper shark genus Somniosus with redescriptions of Somniosus (Somniosus) antarcticus and Somniosus (Rhinoscymnus) longus (Squaliformes: Somniosidae). Ichthyol. Res. 51:360-373. (Ref. 50224)

وضعيت در فهرست قرمز IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  نزديک به تهديد شدن (NT) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر برای انسان ها

  Poisonous to eat (Ref. 4690)





استفاده انسانی

ماهي گيري – شيلات: ارزش تحاري اندك; ماهي ها ي سرگرم كننده: بله
FAO(ماهي گيري – شيلات: production, نمايه گونه; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

اطلاعات بيشتر

اسامي عام
مترادف
سوخت و ساز
شکارچیان
سم شناسي بوم زيستي
تولید مثل
بلوغ
تخم ریزی
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
تخم ها
نمو تخم
مراجع
آبزي پروري
نمايه آبزي پروري
نژادها
ژنتيك
تواتر آلل ها
وارث
بيماري ها
فرآوری
Mass conversion
همكاران
عکس ها
Stamps, Coins Misc.
صداها
سيگواترا
سرعت
نوع شناگری
منطقه آبششي
Otoliths
مغزها
بینایی

ابزارها

گزارش های ويژه

بارگيری XML

منابع اينترنتي

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.6 - 9.3, mean 3.6 (based on 1058 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5313   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00301 - 0.00914), b=3.17 (3.02 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
جهندگی (Ref. 69278):  خیلی آهسته, كمينه زمان لازم براي دو برابر شدن جمعيت بيش از 14 سال (Fec=10; K=0.0075; assuming tm>10).
آسيب پذيری (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
طبقه قيمت (Ref. 80766):   Low.