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Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)

Greenland shark
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Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Squaliformes (Bramble, sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Somniosidae (Sleeper sharks)
Etymology: Somniosus: Latin, somnus = sleep (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 119696); 深度上下限 0 - 2992 m (Ref. 119696), usually 200 - 600 m (Ref. 35388).   深水域; -2°C - 17°C (Ref. 119696); 83°N - 35°N, 95°W - 61°E

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Arctic and North Atlantic: Canadian Arctic at Resolute Bay to Baffin Bay, southward in western Atlantic to Cape Cod, eastward to Greenland, Iceland, Arctic Ocean off Svalbard and Franz Josef Land, and the Barents and White Seas southward in the eastern Atlantic to the Kattegat and west of Ireland; rare records known farther south as well as in the Arctic..
北大西洋與北極圈: 科德角與緬因灣,聖勞倫斯灣到 Ellesmere 島,格陵蘭,冰島, Spitzbergen ,白海與挪威到北海, 有時南至塞納河河口,法國與也許葡萄牙。 大西洋南方部與南極海: 南非, Kerguelen 與 Macquarie 島。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 244 - 427 cm
Max length : 427 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 247); 550.0 cm TL (female); 最大體重: 775.0 kg (Ref. 4699); 最大年齡: 392 年 (Ref. 110949)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0; 脊椎骨: 41 - 44. A gigantic, heavily-bodied dogfish shark with a moderately long, rounded snout and small, low dorsal fins; lower caudal lobe long; upper jaw with small single-cusped teeth and lower jaw with moderate-sized, bent-cusped, slicing teeth (Ref. 5578). Medium grey or brown in color, sometimes with transverse dark bands or small light spots (Ref. 5578).
一個巨人般又身體很重的狗鯊具有一個中等長度的, 圓形的吻與小又低的背鰭; 下尾部的葉長的; 上頜有小的單一尖牙而且下頜有被彎曲的中等大小的-尖頭, 薄片的齒.(參考文獻 5578) 中等的灰色或褐色顏色, 有時有橫跨的深色條紋或小的淡色斑點.(參考文獻 5578)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found on continental and insular shelves and upper slopes down to at least 1,200 m (Ref. 247) and to as deep as 2,200 m (Ref. 55584). Epibenthic-pelagic (Ref. 58426). In the Arctic and boreal Atlantic, it occurs inshore in the intertidal and at the surface in shallow bays and river mouths during colder months, retreating to depths of 180-550 m when the temperature rises (Ref. 247). Reported to be found in temperatures from -1.8° to 17.2°C but commonly below 5°C at with salinity range of 29.4-35.5. It is capable of undertaking long migrations (Ref. 119696). Feeds on pelagic and bottom fishes (herring, Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, capelin, redfish, sculpins, lumpfish, cod, haddock, Atlantic halibut, Greenland halibut and skates (Ref. 5951)), sharks and skates (Ref. 5578), seals and small cetaceans, sea birds, squids, crabs, amphipods, marine snails, brittle stars, sea urchins, and jellyfish (Ref. 247, 58240). Radiocarbon dating of eye lens nuclei from 28 caught female Greenland sharks (81-502 cm TL) revealed a life span of at least 272 years, the oldest being nearly 400 years; age of sexual maturity is about 150 years. This large species is slow-growing (Ref. 110949). Petromyzon marinus was reported to have been attached to S. microcephalus (Ref. 58185). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Utilized fresh and dried for human and sled-dog food (flesh is said to be toxic when fresh); Eskimos also used the skin to make boots, and the sharp lower dental bands as knives for cutting hair (Ref. 247). A very sluggish shark (Ref. 28609). Reports in literature of lengths exceeding 640 cm TL (e.g. up to 730 cm TL in Ref. 247) remain unverified. Common length 244-427 cm TL (Ref. 119696).

棲息於大陸棚與島嶼棚.,而且上層斜坡向下至至少 1,200 公尺 (參考文獻 247) 與對深達 2,200 公尺.(參考文獻 55584) 淺海底棲-大洋性.(參考文獻 58426) 在北極圈與北方生物帶大西洋,它出現在潮間帶中的沿海地區在比較寒冷的數個月期間在淺灣與河口中而在表面, 撤退到深度 180550 公尺的當溫度上升的時候.(參考文獻 247) 吃大洋性與底棲性的魚 (鯡魚,大西洋的鮭魚,北極圈零碎工作, capelin ,雄鮭,杜父魚科的河魚,魴鮄魚,鱈魚,黑斑鱈, 大西洋的大比目魚,格陵蘭大比目魚與魟魚 (參考文獻 5951)) ,鯊魚與魟魚 (參考文獻 5578) ,海豹與小的鯨類,海鳥,烏賊,螃蟹,片腳類動物,海蝸牛,海星,海膽與水母。 (參考文獻 247,58240) 海七鰓鰻〔Petromyzon marinus〕 被報告曾經依附於 S. microcephalus 。 (參考文獻 58185) 卵胎生的.(參考文獻 205) 也生鮮利用而且乾燥以供人類與雪撬-狗的食物;(肉據說有毒的新鮮時) 愛斯基摩人也使用.皮膚做成靴子, 與銳利的下顎齒列當刀子用來剪頭髮.(參考文獻 247) 一隻非常緩動性的鯊魚.(參考文獻 28609)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Ovoviviparous (Ref. 247). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).北大西洋與北極圈: 科德角與緬因灣,聖勞倫斯灣到 Ellesmere 島,格陵蘭,冰島, Spitzbergen ,白海與挪威到北海, 有時南至塞納河河口,法國與也許葡萄牙。 大西洋南方部與南極海: 南非, Kerguelen 與 Macquarie 島。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Yano, K., J.D. Stevens and L.J.V. Compagno, 2004. A review of the systematics of the sleeper shark genus Somniosus with redescriptions of Somniosus (Somniosus) antarcticus and Somniosus (Rhinoscymnus) longus (Squaliformes: Somniosidae). Ichthyol. Res. 51:360-373. (Ref. 50224)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  近危 (NT) ; Date assessed: 31 January 2006

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  有毒 (Ref. 4690)





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漁業: 低經濟; 游釣魚種: 是的
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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.6 - 9.3, mean 3.6 (based on 1058 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5313   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00301 - 0.00914), b=3.17 (3.02 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  非常低的, 最小族群倍增時間超過14 年 (Fec=10; K=0.0075; assuming tm>10).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Low.