Ikan bertulang rawan (sharks and rays)
(Bramble, sleeper and dogfish sharks) > Somniosidae
Etymology: Somniosus: Latin, somnus = sleep (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Bloch & Schneider.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut; payau bentopelagis; oceanodromus (Ref. 119696); kisaran kedalaman 0 - 2992 m (Ref. 119696), usually 200 - 600 m (Ref. 35388). Boreal; -2°C - 17°C (Ref. 119696); 83°N - 35°N, 95°W - 61°E
Arctic and North Atlantic: Canadian Arctic at Resolute Bay to Baffin Bay, southward in western Atlantic to Cape Cod, eastward to Greenland, Iceland, Arctic Ocean off Svalbard and Franz Josef Land, and the Barents and White Seas southward in the eastern Atlantic to the Kattegat and west of Ireland; rare records known farther south as well as in the Arctic..
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm ?, range 244 - 427 cm
Max length : 427 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 247); 550.0 cm TL (female); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 775.0 kg (Ref. 4699); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 392 Tahun (Ref. 110949)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 0; vertebrata, bertulang belakang: 41 - 44. A gigantic, heavily-bodied dogfish shark with a moderately long, rounded snout and small, low dorsal fins; lower caudal lobe long; upper jaw with small single-cusped teeth and lower jaw with moderate-sized, bent-cusped, slicing teeth (Ref. 5578). Medium grey or brown in color, sometimes with transverse dark bands or small light spots (Ref. 5578).
Found on continental and insular shelves and upper slopes down to at least 1,200 m (Ref. 247) and to as deep as 2,200 m (Ref. 55584). Epibenthic-pelagic (Ref. 58426). In the Arctic and boreal Atlantic, it occurs inshore in the intertidal and at the surface in shallow bays and river mouths during colder months, retreating to depths of 180-550 m when the temperature rises (Ref. 247). Reported to be found in temperatures from -1.8° to 17.2°C but commonly below 5°C at with salinity range of 29.4-35.5. It is capable of undertaking long migrations (Ref. 119696). Feeds on pelagic and bottom fishes (herring, Atlantic salmon, Arctic char, capelin, redfish, sculpins, lumpfish, cod, haddock, Atlantic halibut, Greenland halibut and skates (Ref.
5951)), sharks and skates (Ref. 5578), seals and small cetaceans, sea birds, squids, crabs, amphipods, marine snails, brittle stars, sea urchins, and jellyfish (Ref. 247, 58240). Radiocarbon dating of eye lens nuclei from 28 caught female Greenland sharks (81-502 cm TL) revealed a life span of at least 272 years, the oldest being nearly 400 years; age of sexual maturity is about 150 years. This large species is slow-growing (Ref. 110949).
Petromyzon marinus was reported to have been attached to S. microcephalus (Ref. 58185). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Utilized fresh and dried for human and sled-dog food (flesh is said to be toxic when fresh); Eskimos also used the skin to make boots, and the
sharp lower dental bands as knives for cutting hair (Ref. 247). A very sluggish shark (Ref. 28609). Reports in literature of lengths exceeding 640 cm TL (e.g. up to 730 cm TL in Ref. 247) remain unverified. Common length 244-427 cm TL (Ref. 119696).
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 247). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Yano, K., J.D. Stevens and L.J.V. Compagno, 2004. A review of the systematics of the sleeper shark genus Somniosus with redescriptions of Somniosus (Somniosus) antarcticus and Somniosus (Rhinoscymnus) longus (Squaliformes: Somniosidae). Ichthyol. Res. 51:360-373. (Ref. 50224)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
ancaman kepada manusia
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 4690)
Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil; Ikan buruan: ya
AcuanBudidaya airprofil budidaya airStrainGenetikaFrekuensi alelDiturunkanPenyakit-penyakitPengolahanMass conversion
muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.6 - 9.3, mean 3.6 (based on 1058 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5313 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00525 (0.00303 - 0.00910), b=3.18 (3.03 - 3.33), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): sangat rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum lebih dari 14 tahun (Fec=10; K=0.0075; assuming tm>10).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .