Osmerus eperlanus, European smelt : fisheries

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Osmerus eperlanus (Linnaeus, 1758)

European smelt
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Osmerus eperlanus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Osmerus eperlanus (European smelt)
Osmerus eperlanus
Picture by Meyer, T.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Osmeriformes (Smelts) 胡瓜魚目 (Smelts) > Osmeridae (Smelts) 胡瓜魚科 (Smelts)
Etymology: Osmerus: Greek, osme = odorous; similar to freshly cut cucumbers (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水; 溯河洄游 (Ref. 51243), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 4545).   溫帶; 70°N - 43°N, 9°W - 55°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

North Atlantic: White Sea southward to western coasts of France including Baltic Sea, southern North Sea and British Isles (Ref. 4545); the Gironde estuary is the southern limit of his distribution (Ref. 51442). Landlocked populations in lakes of coastal areas of North, Baltic, White and Barents Sea. North to about 68° N in Scandinavia (Ref. 59043). The former nominal subspecies Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus is recorded from the coasts and drainage of White and Barents Seas westward through Baltic Sea to Denmark and it is primarily lacustrine (Ref. 4545). The former subspecies Osmerus eperlanus schonfoldi (Rutty 1772) is sympatric with the nominate subspecies in parts of Poland, Denmark and the Baltic, and it is primarily anadromous (Ref. 4545).
北大西洋: 白海向南至法國包括波羅的海,北海南部與英國島的西海岸;(參考文獻 4545) 法國革命時期的穩健共和黨河口是他的分布的南方限制。 (參考文獻 51442) 對丹麥,先前的名義上的亞種 Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus 距離海岸被記錄與經過波羅的海向西白色的流域與巴倫支海,而且它主要湖泊。 (參考文獻 4545) 前亞種 Osmerus eperlanus schonfoldi(遍地轍痕的 1772) 重疊分佈那在波蘭的部份, 丹麥與波羅的海中提名的亞種, 與它主要溯河洄游產卵.(參考文獻 4545)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 12.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 4545); common length : 16.5 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 682); 最大體重: 178.00 g (Ref. 6114); 最大年齡: 10 年 (Ref. 682)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 9-12; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 12 - 16; 脊椎骨: 55 - 62. Body long and slim (Ref. 4545). Head rather pointed (Ref. 4545). Snout pointed (Ref. 4545). Upper jaw reaching to hind margin of eye, lower jaw projecting a little (Ref. 4545, Ref. 51442). Teeth in lower jaw larger than those of upper, strong teeth on tongue and canines on vomer (Ref. 4545). Dorsal fin origin behind base of pelvic fins (Ref. 4545). Incomplete lateral line is developed near the head (Ref. 51442). Dorsal side light olive green, flanks silver stripe, belly creamy white (Ref. 4545).
身體長而瘦的.(參考文獻 4545) 頭部相當尖.(參考文獻 4545) 吻端尖的.(參考文獻 4545) 上頜延伸到眼的後緣,下頜突出的稍微.(參考文獻 4545, 參考文獻 51442) 在下頜的齒大於那些上面的, 強勁地在犛骨上牙齒在舌與犬齒.(參考文獻 4545) 在腹鰭基底後面的背鰭起點.(參考文獻 4545) 不完全的側線在頭部的附近被發展。 (參考文獻 51442) 背部兩側淡的橄欖綠色的, 側面銀色的斑紋, 腹面乳脂色的白色.(參考文獻 4545)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits marine waters, estuaries and large lakes (Ref. 59043). A midwater species, rarely far from shore, primarily anadromous in the west and lacustrine in the east; shoaling at least during spawning season (Ref. 4545). The essential part of its life is spend in the estuarine zone, with just short incursions in the littoral zone (Ref. 51442). The migratory form is grouping together in the estuarine zone for reproduction (Ref. 51442). Enters the rivers for spawning on sandy or gravely bottoms (Ref. 13696). Spawns in tributaries of lakes or along shallow shores of lakes and rivers on sand, gravel, stones and plant material, preferably in fast-flowing water (Ref. 59043). Reproduction takes place between February and May, depending on the water-temperature (Ref. 51442). Produces 8,000-50,000 yellow eggs with a diameter of 0.6-0.9 mm which adhere to the bottom (Ref. 13696, Ref. 51442). Eggs hatch in 3-5 weeks and the larvae descend to the estuarine zone (Ref. 13696, Ref. 51442). Feeds on shrimps and small crustaceans; larger individuals feed on small fish (Ref. 30578, Ref. 51442). Utilized as foodfish, smoked, as bait and fish oil (Ref. 35388). Smells like cucumber (Ref. 37032, 51442). Locally threatened due to pollution and barriers to migration (Ref. 59043).

一個中層水域種,很少地遠離海岸, 主要溯河洄游產卵在東部中的西方與湖泊者中; 在產卵季節的時候群集的至少。 (參考文獻 4545) 他的生活的必要部份是在河口的區域中度過, 在海濱的區域中的僅僅短的侵入.(參考文獻 51442) 迴游的形式對於繁殖在河口的區域中一起是配列。 (參考文獻 51442) 它進入河進行產卵沙的之上或者嚴重地底部.(參考文獻 13696) 繁殖在二月之間發生與五月, 依據水溫而定.(參考文獻 51442) 它生產 8,000-50,000 黃色卵有黏附在底部的 0.6-0.9 mm 的直徑.(參考文獻 13696, 參考文獻 51442) 他們在 3-5個星期中孵化,而且仔魚下降到河口的區域。 (參考文獻 13696, 參考文獻 51442) 吃蝦與小型甲殼動物; 較大的個體吃小魚。 (參考文獻 30578, 參考文獻 51442) 他們在 3-4 年 (15-18 公分) 中在半鹹淡的族群性成熟了, 在淡水中的 1-2 年 (810 公分的)。 用來作食用魚,煙燻了, 如誘餌與魚油。 (參考文獻 35388) 聞相似的黃瓜。 (參考文獻 37032, 參考文獻 51442)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Spawns in lower reaches of streams, deeper parts of lake in sand bottoms (Ref. 682). Spawning takes place with the melting of snow (Ref. 682). Many individuals die after the spawning (Ref. 682). Migratory form generally with rapid growth, more eggs, live longer; individuals feeding on fish grow bigger (Ref. 682). ). Becomes sexually mature in 3-4 years (15-18 cm) in brackish populations, 1-2 years (8-10 cm) in freshwater.北大西洋: 白海向南至法國包括波羅的海,北海南部與英國島的西海岸;(參考文獻 4545) 法國革命時期的穩健共和黨河口是他的分布的南方限制。 (參考文獻 51442) 對丹麥,先前的名義上的亞種 Osmerus eperlanus eperlanus 距離海岸被記錄與經過波羅的海向西白色的流域與巴倫支海,而且它主要湖泊。 (參考文獻 4545) 前亞種 Osmerus eperlanus schonfoldi(遍地轍痕的 1772) 重疊分佈那在波蘭的部份, 丹麥與波羅的海中提名的亞種, 與它主要溯河洄游產卵.(參考文獻 4545)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 March 2010

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated




漁業: 商業性
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋



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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.5 - 12, mean 9.6 (based on 1010 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5625   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00267 - 0.00682), b=3.17 (3.03 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.42 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.15-0.25; tm=2-4; tmax=10; Fec=10,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.