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Himantura undulata (Bleeker, 1852)

Leopard whipray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Himantura undulata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Himantura undulata (Leopard whipray)
Himantura undulata
Picture by Devarapalli, P.

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulang rawan (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Dasyatidae (Stingrays)
Etymology: Himantura: Greek, iman, imantos = thong, strap + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Bleeker.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut dasar (demersal).   Tropical; 30°N - 24°S

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Bay of Bengal to New Guinea, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Not occurring in the western Indian Ocean.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm ?, range 85 - 90 cm
Max length : 410 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 9840)

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Demersal on soft substrate inshore (Ref.58048). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Size at birth about 20 cm WD and 92 cm TL (Ref. 90102). Caught occasionally in the demersal tangle net, bottom trawl and longline fisheries. Utilized for its meat, skin (high value) and cartilage (Ref.58048).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator : McEachran, John | mitra

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)

  Rentan, lihat daftar merah IUCN (VU) (A2cd+3cd+4cd); Date assessed: 12 December 2011

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Venomous





penggunaan manusia

Perikanan: nilai komersial kecil
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

informasi lanjut

Negara-negara
Daerah-daerah FAO
Ecosystems
Kemunculan
Introduksi
Stocks
Ekologi
Makanan
Bahan makanan
Konsumsi makanan
Jatah
Nama-nama umum
Sinonim (persamaan)
metabolisme
Pemangsa
Ekotoksikologi
Reproduksi, perkembang biakan
Kematangan
Pemijahan
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
telur-telur
pekembangan telor
Umur / Saiz
Pertumbuhan
panjang-berat
panjang-panjang
ukuran frekuensi
Morfometrik
Morfologi
Larva
Dinamika larva
pemulihan
Kelimpahan
Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | semak peneliti ikan | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genom, Nukleotida) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Pangkalan data nasional | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | Akuarium publik | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(pergi, Cari) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25 - 29, mean 28.3 (based on 810 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.00555 - 0.05444), b=3.03 (2.78 - 3.28), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Daya lenting (Ref. 69278):  sangat rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum lebih dari 14 tahun ().
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (79 of 100) .
kategori harga (Ref. 80766):   Low.