Glaucostegus typus, Giant shovelnose ray : fisheries, aquarium

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Glaucostegus typus (Anonymous [Bennett], 1830)

Giant shovelnose ray
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Glaucostegus typus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Glaucostegus typus
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分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Rhinopristiformes (Shovelnose rays) > Glaucostegidae (Giant guitarfishes)

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 深度上下限 0 - 100 m (Ref. 6871).   熱帶; 28°N - 32°S, 76°E - 165°E (Ref. 114953)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: Thailand to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, south to Australia. Records from the south coast of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Myanmar need confirmation.
印度-西太平洋: 泰國到新幾內亞與索羅門群島,南至澳洲。 記錄從印度南部海岸,斯里蘭卡,孟加拉與緬甸需要證實。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?, range 150 - 180 cm
Max length : 270 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9909)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Occurs inshore and offshore, from the intertidal to offshore continental and insular shelves (Ref. 9909). Adults are found offshore waters while young individuals are found inshore on sand flats, around atolls, and in mangrove swamps (Ref. 6871). Feeds on shellfish, mainly on prawns and crabs (Ref. 9909, Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Maturity size at 150-180 cm TL; born at 38-40 cm TL (Ref. 114953). Reported to live and breed permanently in fresh water (Ref. 6871). Probably the major commercial guitarfish in the Western Central Pacific (Ref. 9909). Caught regularly by demersal tangle net fisheries operating throughout the area. Utilized for its meat, fins (both very high value), skin and cartilage (Ref.58048). Reported to attain a maximum length of 4 m (Ref. 58784).

生活于近海与外海, 从潮间带到外海大陆架与岛屿棚.(参考文献 9909) 成鱼被发现离岸水域而幼鱼个体被发现在沿海的沙地浅滩, 环礁的周围, 与在红树林沼泽中.(参考文献 6871) 吃贝。 (参考文献 9909) 卵胎生的.(参考文献 50449) 报告永久地在淡水中生存与繁殖。 (参考文献 6871) 可能在中西太平洋的主要商业的犁头鳐.(参考文献 9909)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Born at 38-40 cm TL (Ref.58048).印度-西太平洋: 泰國到新幾內亞與索羅門群島,南至澳洲。 記錄從印度南部海岸,斯里蘭卡,孟加拉與緬甸需要證實。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  极度濒危 (CR) (A2bd); Date assessed: 03 December 2018

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的 (Ref. 12951)





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 水族馆: 商业性
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网络资源

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | 核实 FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(基因组, 核苷酸) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | 公众的水族馆 | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | 树状分类阶层 | Wikipedia(转至, 搜寻) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | 动物学的记录

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.7 - 29, mean 28 (based on 1126 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5156   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00661 (0.00226 - 0.01934), b=2.99 (2.75 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.6   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (Fec assumed to be <100).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (74 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Low.