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Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards, 1771)

Great barracuda
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Image of Sphyraena barracuda (Great barracuda)
Sphyraena barracuda
Picture by Patzner, R.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sphyraenidae (Barracudas)
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 礁区鱼类; 深度上下限 1 - 100 m (Ref. 6949), usually 3 - 30 m (Ref. 40849).   亚热带的; 42°N - 35°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55300)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa to Hawaii and the Marquesas and Tuamoto islands. Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, and throughout the Caribbean Sea to Brazil (Ref. 9626). Eastern Atlantic: Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Nigeria, Senegal (Ref. 6949), Mauritania (Ref. 5377), St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121), and São Tomé Island (Ref. 34088).
印度-太平洋: 红海与非洲东岸到夏威夷群岛与马贵斯群岛与 Tuamoto 岛。 西大西洋: 麻萨诸塞州 (美国) ,百慕达群岛, 与在加勒比海到巴西各处.(参考文献 9626) 东大西洋: 狮子山,科特迪瓦,多哥,奈及利亚,塞内加尔 (参考文献 6949) ,毛里塔尼亚 (参考文献 5377) ,圣保罗岩礁 (参考文献 13121) 与圣多美岛.(参考文献 34088)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 66.0, range 58 - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 7251); common length : 140 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 3692); 最大体重: 50.0 kg (Ref. 6949)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 6; 背的软条 (总数): 9; 臀棘 2; 臀鳍软条: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: a large body, large eyes; body depth 6.0-8.2 in SL; teeth erect and contiguous; no gill rakers on first gill arch, instead upper and lower gill arch with rough platelets which lack distinct spines; origin of first dorsal fin at level of the rear base of the pelvic fins; caudal fin emarginate with a pair of large lobes at posterior margin, except young less than 50 cm TL which have a forked caudal fin. Colour of body silvery; many oblique dark bars on upper half of body that do not across lateral line; caudal fin black with white tips; juveniles with a series of large dark blotches irregularly arranged on sides of body (Ref. 9768, 90102).
区别的特徵为边缘有双凹痕的尾部鳍有灰白的在每个叶上的顶端, 与 (通常) 那在下面的侧边上有一些分散的黑色斑块.(参考文献 1602) 在眼之间的头顶平坦的或凹曲; 嘴大的.(参考文献 26938)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Found predominantly at or near the surface (Ref. 6949, 48637). Juvenile occurs among mangroves, estuaries and shallow sheltered inner reef areas; adult occurs in a wide range of habitats from murky inner harbors to open seas. Diurnal and solitary, but can also be found in small aggregations. Feeds on fishes, cephalopods and sometimes on shrimps (Ref. 9626, 48637). Sold fresh. Utilized also dried or salted (Ref. 9987). Although this species is ciguatoxic elsewhere throughout its range, it has not been reported to be poisonous in the eastern Atlantic (Ref. 6949, 48637). Rarely attacks humans, usually with one quick, fierce strike, which, although serious, is rarely fatal. The world's record on hook and line is a 5.5-ft. fish taken in the Bahamas that weighed 103 lbs. (Ref. 13442). Caught by handline, set nets, and other fishing gear (Ref. 9768).

主要发现在或接近水表面.(参考文献 6949,48637) 稚鱼出现在红树林,河口与水浅且有遮蔽的内部礁区之中; 成鱼出现在从黝暗的内部港湾到开放海域的宽范围的栖息地。 日行性与独居性, 但是也能被发现于小群鱼群。 捕食鱼类, 头足类动物与有时吃虾子.(参考文献 9626,48637) 生鲜贩卖了。 也利用干燥或盐腌.(参考文献 9987) 虽然这种是有西加毒的在他分布范围的其他地方, 它有不被报告在东大西洋中是有毒的.(参考文献 6949,48637) 很少攻击人类,通常有一个快又凶猛的攻擊,, 雖然嚴重的, 是非致命的。 世界的記錄用一支釣是 5.5 英尺。 魚採自了秤重了 103個磅的巴哈馬。 (參考文獻 13442)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

印度-太平洋: 红海与非洲东岸到夏威夷群岛与马贵斯群岛与 Tuamoto 岛。 西大西洋: 麻萨诸塞州 (美国) ,百慕达群岛, 与在加勒比海到巴西各处.(参考文献 9626) 东大西洋: 狮子山,科特迪瓦,多哥,奈及利亚,塞内加尔 (参考文献 6949) ,毛里塔尼亚 (参考文献 5377) ,圣保罗岩礁 (参考文献 13121) 与圣多美岛.(参考文献 34088)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Daget, J., 1986. Sphyraenidae. p. 350-351. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4339)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 29 January 2013

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  引起创伤的 (Ref. 4690)





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
FAO(渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.7 - 28.9, mean 27.2 (based on 2020 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00750 - 0.01109), b=2.92 (2.88 - 2.96), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.09-0.11; tm=2-4).
Prior r = 0.31, 95% CL = 0.20 - 0.48, Based on 2 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (79 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.