Sphyraena barracuda, Great barracuda : fisheries, gamefish, aquarium
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Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards, 1771)

Great barracuda
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Sphyraena barracuda   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Sphyraena barracuda
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Sphyraenidae (Barracudas) 金梭魚科 (Barracudas)
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 礁區魚類; 深度上下限 1 - 100 m (Ref. 6949), usually 3 - 30 m (Ref. 40849).   亞熱帶的; 42°N - 35°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55300)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and east coast of Africa to Hawaii and the Marquesas and Tuamoto islands. Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (USA), Bermuda, and throughout the Caribbean Sea to Brazil (Ref. 9626). Eastern Atlantic: Sierra Leone, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Nigeria, Senegal (Ref. 6949), Mauritania (Ref. 5377), St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121), and São Tomé Island (Ref. 34088).
印度-太平洋: 紅海與非洲東岸到夏威夷群島與馬貴斯群島與 Tuamoto 島。 西大西洋: 麻薩諸塞州 (美國) ,百慕達群島, 與在加勒比海到巴西各處.(參考文獻 9626) 東大西洋: 獅子山,象牙海岸,多哥,奈及利亞,塞內加爾 (參考文獻 6949) ,茅利塔尼亞 (參考文獻 5377) ,聖保羅岩礁 (參考文獻 13121) 與聖多美島.(參考文獻 34088)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 66.0, range 58 - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 7251); common length : 140 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3692); 最大體重: 50.0 kg (Ref. 6949)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 6; 背的軟條 (總數): 9; 臀棘 2; 臀鰭軟條: 8. This species is distinguished by the following characters: a large body, large eyes; body depth 6.0-8.2 in SL; teeth erect and contiguous; no gill rakers on first gill arch, instead upper and lower gill arch with rough platelets which lack distinct spines; origin of first dorsal fin at level of the rear base of the pelvic fins; caudal fin emarginate with a pair of large lobes at posterior margin, except young less than 50 cm TL which have a forked caudal fin. Colour of body silvery; many oblique dark bars on upper half of body that do not across lateral line; caudal fin black with white tips; juveniles with a series of large dark blotches irregularly arranged on sides of body (Ref. 9768, 90102).
區別的特徵為邊緣有雙凹痕的尾部鰭有灰白的在每個葉上的頂端, 與 (通常) 那在下面的側邊上有一些分散的黑色斑塊.(參考文獻 1602) 在眼之間的頭頂平坦的或凹曲; 嘴大的.(參考文獻 26938)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found predominantly at or near the surface (Ref. 6949, 48637). Juvenile occurs among mangroves, estuaries and shallow sheltered inner reef areas; adult occurs in a wide range of habitats from murky inner harbors to open seas. Diurnal and solitary, but can also be found in small aggregations. Feeds on fishes, cephalopods and sometimes on shrimps (Ref. 9626, 48637). Sold fresh. Utilized also dried or salted (Ref. 9987). Although this species is ciguatoxic elsewhere throughout its range, it has not been reported to be poisonous in the eastern Atlantic (Ref. 6949, 48637). Rarely attacks humans, usually with one quick, fierce strike, which, although serious, is rarely fatal. The world's record on hook and line is a 5.5-ft. fish taken in the Bahamas that weighed 103 lbs. (Ref. 13442). Caught by handline, set nets, and other fishing gear (Ref. 9768).

主要發現在或接近水表面.(參考文獻 6949,48637) 稚魚在紅樹林,河口與水淺且有遮蔽的內部礁區之中出現; 成魚出現於從黝暗的內部港灣到開放海域的寬範圍的棲息地中。 日行性與獨居性, 但是也能被發現於小群魚群。 捕食魚類, 頭足類動物與有時吃蝦子.(參考文獻 9626,48637) 生鮮販賣.。 也利用乾燥或鹽醃.(參考文獻 9987) 雖然這種是有西加毒的在他分佈範圍的其他地方, 它有不被報告在東大西洋中是有毒的.(參考文獻 6949,48637) 很少攻擊人類,通常有一個快又凶猛的攻擊,, 雖然嚴重的, 是非致命的。 世界的記錄用一支釣是 5.5 英尺。 魚採自.秤重. 103個磅的巴哈馬。 (參考文獻 13442)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

印度-太平洋: 紅海與非洲東岸到夏威夷群島與馬貴斯群島與 Tuamoto 島。 西大西洋: 麻薩諸塞州 (美國) ,百慕達群島, 與在加勒比海到巴西各處.(參考文獻 9626) 東大西洋: 獅子山,象牙海岸,多哥,奈及利亞,塞內加爾 (參考文獻 6949) ,茅利塔尼亞 (參考文獻 5377) ,聖保羅岩礁 (參考文獻 13121) 與聖多美島.(參考文獻 34088)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Daget, J., 1986. Sphyraenidae. p. 350-351. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4339)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 29 January 2013

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  引起創傷的 (Ref. 4690)





人類使用

漁業: 低經濟; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 21.7 - 28.9, mean 27.2 (based on 2020 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00891 (0.00739 - 0.01075), b=2.92 (2.88 - 2.96), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.09-0.11; tm=2-4).
Prior r = 0.31, 95% CL = 0.20 - 0.48, Based on 2 stock assessments.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (79 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.