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Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède, 1802)

Graysby
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Cephalopholis cruentata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Cephalopholis cruentata
Picture by Steele, M.A.

Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Straalvinnigen) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Lacepède.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien rifbewoner; standvastig (Ref. 56524); diepteverspreiding 0 - 170 m (Ref. 9710).   Subtropical; 36°N - 6°S, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222)

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Western Central Atlantic: North Carolina to southern Florida (USA), Bermuda, Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, and the Caribbean; including the Antilles (Ref. 26938).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm 16.0, range 14 - ? cm
Max length : 42.6 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 40637); common length : 20.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 3708); Maximaal gepubliceerd gewicht: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637); Maximaal vermelde leeftijd: 13 jaren (Ref. 36271)

Korte beschrijving Morfologie | Morfometrie

Dorsale stekels (totaal): 9; Dorsale zachte stralen (totaal): 13-15; Anale stekels 3; Anale zachte stralen: 8. Distinguished by having the following characteristics: body depth 2.5-2.9 times in SL; head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL (Ref. 089707); opercle with 3 flat spines, middle one the largest and upper spine longer than the lowest; pelvic fins shorter than pectorals; bases of soft dorsal and anal fins covered with scales and thick skin; has 4 contrasting spots, white or black, along body below dorsal fin base (Ref. 26938); color in market: pale orange, grey or brown with reddish spots; black spots on the upper body below the dorsal fin (Ref. 089707).

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Inhabits Thalassia beds and coral reefs. In the Gulf of Mexico, they are found on rocky reef ledge in depths greater than 27 m. Solitary (Ref. 26340) and secretive, they usually stay near hiding places during the day. Prefer to remain within a small area of the home range of about 2,120 square m especially during the day (Ref. 56524). Nocturnal predators, adults feed mainly on fishes, with preference on Chromis multilineata, while juveniles feed on shrimps. Due to its small size, this is not a particularly sought-after species. Easily approached and fed by divers (Ref. 9710). Protogynous (Ref. 26938). Between 1995 and 2000, at least 10 specimens have been traded as aquarium fish at Ceará, Brazil (Ref. 49392).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Most change sex between 20 and 23 cm (ages 4 and 5), with sexual transition occurring immediately after spawning in August and September (Ref. 3092).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Medewerkers

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 119314)

  Niet bedreigd (LC) ; Date assessed: 12 November 2017

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)





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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 22.7 - 28, mean 26.4 (based on 328 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00674 - 0.01956), b=3.06 (2.92 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 69278):  Gemiddeld, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd 1,4-4,4 jaar (K=0.34-0.35; tm=3.5-5.5; tmax=9; Fec=260,000).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Prijsklasse (Ref. 80766):   Very high.