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Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède, 1802)

Graysby
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Cephalopholis cruentata   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Cephalopholis cruentata
Picture by Steele, M.A.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) 鱸形目 (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) 鮨科 (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Lacepède.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋 礁區魚類; 非遷移的 (Ref. 56524); 深度上下限 0 - 170 m (Ref. 9710).   亞熱帶的; 36°N - 6°S, 98°W - 58°W (Ref. 5222)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Western Central Atlantic: North Carolina to southern Florida (USA), Bermuda, Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, and the Caribbean; including the Antilles (Ref. 26938).
中西大西洋: 北卡羅萊那州到佛羅里達南部 (美國) ,百慕達群島,墨西哥灣,巴哈馬與加勒比海; 包括安地列斯群島。 (參考文獻 26938)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 16.0, range 14 - ? cm
Max length : 42.6 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 40637); common length : 20.0 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 3708); 最大體重: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637); 最大年齡: 13 年 (Ref. 36271)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 9; 背的軟條 (總數): 13-15; 臀棘 3; 臀鰭軟條: 8. Distinguished by having the following characteristics: body depth 2.5-2.9 times in SL; head length 2.4-2.6 times in SL (Ref. 089707); opercle with 3 flat spines, middle one the largest and upper spine longer than the lowest; pelvic fins shorter than pectorals; bases of soft dorsal and anal fins covered with scales and thick skin; has 4 contrasting spots, white or black, along body below dorsal fin base (Ref. 26938); color in market: pale orange, grey or brown with reddish spots; black spots on the upper body below the dorsal fin (Ref. 089707).
鰓蓋有 3根平坦的棘,中央一大而上面的棘長度超過最低的。 腹鰭短於胸鰭。 軟背鰭與臀鰭的基底覆蓋著鱗片與厚的皮膚了。 有 4個鮮明對比的斑點, 白色或者黑色, 在背鰭基底之下沿著身體.(參考文獻 26938)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits Thalassia beds and coral reefs. In the Gulf of Mexico, they are found on rocky reef ledge in depths greater than 27 m. Solitary (Ref. 26340) and secretive, they usually stay near hiding places during the day. Prefer to remain within a small area of the home range of about 2,120 square m especially during the day (Ref. 56524). Nocturnal predators, adults feed mainly on fishes, with preference on Chromis multilineata, while juveniles feed on shrimps. Due to its small size, this is not a particularly sought-after species. Easily approached and fed by divers (Ref. 9710). Protogynous (Ref. 26938). Between 1995 and 2000, at least 10 specimens have been traded as aquarium fish at Ceará, Brazil (Ref. 49392).

棲息於泰來草床與珊瑚礁。 在墨西哥灣,它在深度大於 27 公尺中生存於岩石的礁岩架。 通常停留在藏身處的附近在白天期間的一種獨居性 (參考文獻 26340) 與躲躲藏藏的種; 夜行的掠食者 , 成魚主要捕食魚,與在 Chromis multilineata 上的偏愛,稚魚吃蝦。 由於它的體型小,這不是一個特別受喜愛的種。 容易接近而且被潛水者餵.(參考文獻 9710) 一個雌雄同體.(參考文獻 26938) 在 1995 與 2000之間, 至少 10件標本曾經在巴西的塞阿臘交易當作水族館魚.(參考文獻 49392)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Most change sex between 20 and 23 cm (ages 4 and 5), with sexual transition occurring immediately after spawning in August and September (Ref. 3092).中西大西洋: 北卡羅萊那州到佛羅里達南部 (美國) ,百慕達群島,墨西哥灣,巴哈馬與加勒比海; 包括安地列斯群島。 (參考文獻 26938)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Heemstra, Phillip C. | 合作者

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 119314)

  無危 (LC) ; Date assessed: 12 November 2017

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  有雪卡魚毒中毒的報導 (Ref. 30303)





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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 22.7 - 28, mean 26.4 (based on 328 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00674 - 0.01956), b=3.06 (2.92 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增時間最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.34-0.35; tm=3.5-5.5; tmax=9; Fec=260,000).
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.