Gymnura japonica, Japanese butterflyray

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Gymnura japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850)

Japanese butterflyray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Gymnura japonica   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gymnura japonica (Japanese butterflyray)
Gymnura japonica
Picture by The Fish Database of Taiwan

Classificatie / Names Populaire namen | Synoniemen | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (haaien en roggen) (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Gymnuridae (Butterfly rays)
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Temminck & Schlegel.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologie

; marien demersaal.   Tropical

Verspreiding Landen | FAO regio's | Ecosystems | Voorkomen | Point map | Introducties | Faunafri

Northwest Pacific: southern Japan to the China seas. Possibly in Thailand (Ref. 9918). Reported from India (Ref. 45255).

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Leeftijd

Maturity: Lm ?, range 55 - 59 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL mannelijk/geslacht niet bekend; (Ref. 637)

Biologie     Verklarende woordenlijst (b.v. epibenthic)

Inhabits sandy or muddy bottom in shallow waters (Ref. 11230). Feeds on benthic animals. Spines covered with skin with poisonous glands. Ovoviviparous. Used as 'kamaboko' material (Ref. 637). Caught often by demersal trawl, trammel and gillnet fisheries, and occasionally using tangle nets.Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its typically small size (Ref.58048).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geslachtsrijpheid | Voortplanting | Kuitschieten | Eieren | Fecundity | Larven

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Gives birth to ~3 pups; born between 20-22 cm WD (Ref.58048).

Voornaamste referentie Upload your references | Referenties | Coördinator : McEachran, John | Medewerkers

Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)

Status op de Rode Lijst van het IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Onvoldoende gegevens (DD) ; Date assessed: 27 June 2007

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Gevaarlijk voor mensen

  Venomous (Ref. 637)





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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 17.9 - 29.1, mean 28.1 (based on 1500 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.61 se; Based on food items.
Weerstandsvermogen (Ref. 120179):  zeer laag, minimale populatieverdubbelingstijd meer dan 14 jaar (Fec assumed to be <10).
Kwetsbaarheid (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .