Gymnura japonica, Japanese butterflyray

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Gymnura japonica (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850)

Japanese butterflyray
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Gymnura japonica   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Gymnura japonica (Japanese butterflyray)
Gymnura japonica
Picture by The Fish Database of Taiwan

klasifikasi / Names Nama-nama umum | Sinonim (persamaan) | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ikan bertulang rawan (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes (Stingrays) > Gymnuridae (Butterfly rays)
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).  More on authors: Temminck & Schlegel.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ekologi

; laut dasar (demersal).   Tropical

Penyebaran Negara-negara | Daerah-daerah FAO | Ecosystems | Kemunculan | Point map | Introduksi | Faunafri

Northwest Pacific: southern Japan to the China seas. Possibly in Thailand (Ref. 9918). Reported from India (Ref. 45255).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur

Maturity: Lm ?, range 55 - 59 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 637)

Biologi     Daftar kata (contoh epibenthic)

Inhabits sandy or muddy bottom in shallow waters (Ref. 11230). Feeds on benthic animals. Spines covered with skin with poisonous glands. Ovoviviparous. Used as 'kamaboko' material (Ref. 637). Caught often by demersal trawl, trammel and gillnet fisheries, and occasionally using tangle nets.Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its typically small size (Ref.58048).

Life cycle and mating behavior Kematangan | Reproduksi, perkembang biakan | Pemijahan | telur-telur | Fecundity | Larva

Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Gives birth to ~3 pups; born between 20-22 cm WD (Ref.58048).

rujukan utama Upload your references | Acuan | Koordinator : McEachran, John | mitra

Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)

Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 120744)

  kekurangan data (DD) ; Date assessed: 27 June 2007

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

ancaman kepada manusia

  Venomous (Ref. 637)





penggunaan manusia

FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

informasi lanjut

Nama-nama umum
Sinonim (persamaan)
metabolisme
Pemangsa
Ekotoksikologi
Reproduksi, perkembang biakan
Kematangan
Pemijahan
Spawning aggregation
Fecundity
telur-telur
pekembangan telor
Umur / Saiz
Pertumbuhan
panjang-berat
panjang-panjang
ukuran frekuensi
Morfometrik
Morfologi
Larva
Dinamika larva
pemulihan
Kelimpahan
Acuan
Budidaya air
profil budidaya air
Strain
Genetika
Frekuensi alel
Diturunkan
Penyakit-penyakit
Pengolahan
Mass conversion
mitra
Gambar
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Suara-suara
Ciguatera
Kecepatan
Tipe renang
Area insang
Otoliths
Otak
Penglihatan / visi

Alat, peralatan

laporan khas

muat turun XML

Sumber internet

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | semak peneliti ikan | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genom, Nukleotida) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Pangkalan data nasional | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(pergi, Cari) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 17.9 - 29.1, mean 28.1 (based on 1500 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.61 se; Based on food items.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179):  sangat rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum lebih dari 14 tahun (Fec assumed to be <10).
keancaman (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .