Megalops atlanticus, Tarpon : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, aquarium

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Megalops atlanticus Valenciennes, 1847

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Megalops atlanticus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Megalops atlanticus (Tarpon)
Megalops atlanticus
Picture by Patzner, R.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Elopiformes (Tarpons and tenpounders) 海鰱目 (Tarpons and tenpounders) > Megalopidae (Tarpons) 大眼海鰱科 (Tarpons)
Etymology: Megalops: Greek, megas, megalos = great + Greek, ops = appearance (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Valenciennes.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 礁區魚類; 非產卵性溯降河的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 40 m (Ref. 3789), usually 0 - 15 m (Ref. 42064).   亞熱帶的; 10°C - 40°C (Ref. 93687); 49°N - 44°S, 99°W - 14°E (Ref. 55254)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Atlantic Ocean: from Nova Scotia, Bermuda and southward to Brazil in western Atlantic Ocean (Ref. 3234, 4446), where it it also found throughout the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean (Ref. 26938); from Mauritania to Angola in eastern Atlantic Ocean (Ref. 2845, 3234, 4446, 81266); with exceptional records in Portugal, Azores and Atlantic coast of southern France (Ref. 3234, 4446). Crossed the Panama canal and was caught at Coiba Island in the Pacific Ocean (Ref. 4446).
東大西洋: 塞內加爾到安哥拉, 在葡萄牙,亞速群島與法國南部的大西洋海岸中有例外的出現。 西大西洋: 美國北卡羅萊那州到 Bahia 巴西, 偶而有發生從美國海岸向北至加拿大的新斯科舍省而且向南至巴西的加納內依亞鎮與阿根廷。 在墨西哥灣與加勒比海各處.(參考文獻 26938) 中太平洋東部: 經由巴拿馬運河的在巴拿馬的軍曹魚島。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 160.0, range 130 - 128.5 cm
Max length : 250 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 2683); common length : 130 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 2683); 最大體重: 161.0 kg (Ref. 26340); 最大年齡: 55 年 (Ref. 9975)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 13-16; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 22 - 25; 脊椎骨: 53 - 57. Diagnosis: It is characterized by the anterior position of pelvic fin insertions in relation to dorsal-fin origin, and by some morphometric counts: 13-16 dorsal-fin rays, 40-48 lateral-line scales and 53-57 vertebrae (Ref. 2845, 81266).
在身體的身體中央的背鰭有短的基底。 臀鰭有較長的基底, 在背鰭的水平的後端的起源。 胸鰭起源非常低的。 側線鱗片有分枝的管。 藍灰色的背面, 亮銀色的側邊。 泳鰾依附於食道了而且能被將直接地裝滿空氣; 這一個特徵使這種能夠生活於缺氧的 (半鹹淡水) 水域。 大的鱗片,37-42 在側線中.(參考文獻 26938) 持續擴大的如重的絲狀突起的鰭條。 (參考文獻 26938)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabit coastal waters, bays, estuaries, mangrove-lined lagoons, and rivers (Ref. 3789, 27188). Often found in river mouths and bays, entering fresh water (Ref. 27227). Lower depth limit at 40m (Ref. 118621). Large schools may frequent particular spots for years (Ref. 9710). Feed on fishes like sardines, anchovies, Mugilidae, Centropomus, Cichlidae (mainly those forming schools) and crabs (Ref. 3789, 27188). The swim bladder, attached to the esophagus, can be filled directly with air and permits the fish to live in oxygen-poor waters. Has high fecundity, a 203 cm female is estimated to produce over 12 million eggs (Ref. 10863). Spawn in waters which can be temporarily isolated from the open sea (Ref. 27188). Transparent leptocephalus larvae migrate into estuaries (Ref. 57533). Famous for its spectacular leaps when hooked. Marketed fresh or salted (Ref. 3789). Large scales are used in ornamental work and in preparation of artificial pearls (Ref. 3789). Used to be cultured commercially in Colombia (Ref. 7306). Highly appreciated by sport fishers. The flesh is also highly appreciated despite its being bony (Ref. 27188). The world record for hook and line is 283 lbs. from Lake Maricaibo, Venezuela (Ref. 13442).

棲息於沿岸水域,海灣,河口,紅樹林林列的潟湖與河。 (參考文獻 3789,27188) 時常發現於河口與海灣, 進入淡水。 (參考文獻 27227) 大群魚群可能常常聚集於特別的地點長達數年之久。 (參考文獻 9710) 捕食像沙丁魚,鯷魚,鯔科魚類, Centropomus ,慈鯛科魚類 (主要地那些形成群體) 與螃蟹的魚。 (參考文獻 3789,27188) 被依附於食道的泳鰾,能被將直接地裝滿空氣而且允許魚生活於缺氧的水域。 有高的孕卵數, 一個 203 公分母魚被估計生產超過一千二百萬個卵.(參考文獻 10863) 產卵於可能是暫時孤立的從開放海域的水域中。 (參考文獻 27188) 對於它的壯觀跳躍是出名的當鉤住。 在市場上銷售生鮮地.或鹽醃的.(參考文獻 3789) 大的鱗片被用於裝飾性的作品與在人造珍珠的材料.(參考文獻 3789) 在哥倫比亞用於商業性地養殖.。 (參考文獻 7306) 高度地獲得釣客賞識.。 肉不在乎它是多骨的高度地也被欣賞。 (參考文獻 27188) 因為一支釣是來自湖 Maricaibo ,委內瑞拉的 283個磅,世界記錄。 (參考文獻 13442)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Some populations may complete life cycle in freshwater, e.g. Lake Nicaragua in Central America, and Deep Lake in Florida (Ref. 4639).東大西洋: 塞內加爾到安哥拉, 在葡萄牙,亞速群島與法國南部的大西洋海岸中有例外的出現。 西大西洋: 美國北卡羅萊那州到 Bahia 巴西, 偶而有發生從美國海岸向北至加拿大的新斯科舍省而且向南至巴西的加納內依亞鎮與阿根廷。 在墨西哥灣與加勒比海各處.(參考文獻 26938) 中太平洋東部: 經由巴拿馬運河的在巴拿馬的軍曹魚島。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Hureau, J.-C., 1984. Megalopidae. p. 226-227. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3234)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2bd); Date assessed: 28 March 2011

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated


  有雪卡魚毒中毒的報導 (Ref. 31172)


漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的; 水族館: 公眾的水族館
FAO(漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋



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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 19.6 - 28, mean 27 (based on 1409 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00462 - 0.01365), b=2.98 (2.82 - 3.14), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (K=0.07-0.10; tmax=55; Fec>1 million).
Prior r = 0.34, 95% CL = 0.21 - 0.55, Based on 1 stock assessment.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.