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Gymnosarda unicolor (Rüppell, 1836)

Dogtooth tuna
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Gymnosarda unicolor   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Gymnosarda unicolor
Picture by Patzner, R.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Scombridae (Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Gymnosarda: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, sarde = sardine; 1598 (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Rüppell.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋 礁区鱼类; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 10 - 250 m (Ref. 86942).   熱帶; 20°C - 28°C (Ref. 5313); 31°N - 30°S, 32°E - 130°W (Ref. 168)

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Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to French Polynesia, north to Japan, south to Australia.
印度-太平洋: 紅海而且東非到法屬玻里尼西亞,北至日本, 南至澳洲。

大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 248 cm FL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 40637); common length : 190 cm NG 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9710); 最大体重: 131.0 kg (Ref. 168)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 13 - 15; 背的软条 (总数): 12-14; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 12 - 13; 脊椎骨: 38. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body elongate and moderately compressed; mouth fairly large, upper jaw reaching to middle of eye; 14 to 31 large, conical teeth on upper jaw, 10 to 24 on lower jaw; 2 patches of villiform teeth on upper surface of tongue; total gill rakers on first gill arch 11-14; D1 XIII-XV, its border almost straight, the second followed by 6-7 finlets, dorsal fins close together; anal fin followed by 6 finlets; pectoral fins with 25-28 rays; interpelvic process large and single; lateral line strongly undulating; body naked posterior to corselet except for lateral line, dorsal-fin base, and caudal keel; caudal peduncle slender, with a well-developed lateral keel between 2 smaller keels on each side. Colour of back and upper sides brilliant blue-black, lower sides and belly silvery; no lines, spots or other markings on body; anterior tip of first dorsal fin dark; other fins greyish (Ref. 9684).
嘴非常大的, 上颌延伸到眼的中央。 嗅觉毛簇的叶片 48 到 56. 腹鳍间的突起大的与单个。 侧线强烈波浪形的。 身体裸露的在甲胄后面。 泳鳔大的, 脾脏看得见的由腹面观之在身体的右边上。 背部与上侧面色彩艳丽的蓝黑色的, 下侧与腹面银色的; 没有在身体上的线, 斑点或其他的斑纹。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

An offshore species found mainly around coral reefs. Generally solitary or occur in small schools of six or less. Preys on small schooling fishes such as Decapterus, Caesio, Nasio, Cirrhilabrus, Pterocaesio and squids. Caught mainly by pole-and-line. Marketed canned and frozen (Ref. 9684, 48637). Adults may be ciguatoxic (Ref. 37816).

一个外海种主要地珊瑚礁的周围发现。 通常独居性的或六以内形成小群鱼群。 捕食小的群游性鱼例如 Decapterus Caesio Nasio Cirrhilabrus Pterocaesio 与乌贼。 在市场上销售罐装及冷冻.(参考文献 9684,48637) 成鱼可能具有热带海鱼毒.(参考文献 37816)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

印度-太平洋: 紅海而且東非到法屬玻里尼西亞,北至日本, 南至澳洲。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 : Collette, Bruce B. | 合作者

Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 120744)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 05 December 2009

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  有雪卡鱼毒中毒的报导 (Ref. 168)





人类利用

渔业: 低经济; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 20.9 - 28.2, mean 26.5 (based on 938 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.0000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00562 - 0.01952), b=3.04 (2.89 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.75 se; Based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (Assuming tmax>10).
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   High.