Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Scombridae
(Mackerels, tunas, bonitos) > Scombrinae
Etymology: Gymnosarda: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, sarde = sardine; 1598 (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - 250 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 20°C - 28°C (Ref. 5313); 31°N - 30°S, 32°E - 130°W (Ref. 168)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to French Polynesia, north to Japan, south to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 248 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 190 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); max. published weight: 131.0 kg (Ref. 168)
(total): 13 - 15;
soft rays: 12 - 13;
Vertebrae: 38. Mouth fairly large, upper jaw reaching to middle of eye. Laminae of olfactory rosette 48 to 56. Interpelvic process large and single. Lateral line strongly undulating. Body naked posterior to corselet. Swim bladder large, spleen visible in ventral view on the right side of the body. The back and upper sides brilliant blue-black, lower sides and belly silvery; no lines, spots or other markings on the body.
An offshore species found mainly around coral reefs. Generally solitary or occur in small schools of six or less. Preys on small schooling fishes such as Decapterus, Caesio, Nasio, Cirrhilabrus, Pterocaesio and squids. Marketed canned and frozen (Ref. 9684, 48637). Adults may be ciguatoxic (Ref. 37816).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and C.E. Nauen, 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(2):137 p. (Ref. 168)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 168)
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.9 - 28.2, mean 26.5 (based on 938 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00567 - 0.01934), b=3.05 (2.90 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.75 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming tmax>10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (73 of 100) .