Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate)
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hemiramphus: Greek, hemi = half + Greek, rhamphos = bill, peak (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino associati a barriera corallina; distribuzione batimetrica 0 - 5 m (Ref. 3723), usually 0 - 2 m (Ref. 40849). Subtropical; 43°N - 13°S
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil, including the Caribbean Sea (Ref. 3723); absent in Bermuda. Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde and Dakar, Senegal to Luanda, Angola (Ref. 4497).
Length at first maturity / Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm 19.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 2683); common length : 35.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 3633); peso massimo pubblicato: 200.00 g (Ref. 5217)
Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 13-14; Raggi anali molli: 12 - 13. No ridge between nostril and eye (Ref. 26938).
An inshore, surface-dwelling species forming sizeable schools (Ref. 3723). Feeds mainly on sea grasses and small fishes (Ref. 3723). Mainly used as bait for offshore game fishes such as sailfishes and marlins; utilized as a food fish in the West Indies (Ref. 3723).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Pesca: scarso interesse commerciale; esca: usually
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.5 - 28.1, mean 27.3 (based on 858 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00269 (0.00207 - 0.00350), b=3.12 (3.05 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Generation time: 1.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Medio, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione 1.4 - 4.4 anni (K=0.58 questionable; assuming tmax>3).
Prior r = 0.46, 95% CL = 0.28 - 0.77, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .