Actinopterigi (pesci con pinne raggiate)
(Needle fishes) > Exocoetidae
Etymology: Exocoetus: Greek, exos = outside + Greek, koite = hole (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino; oceanodromo (Ref. 51243); distribuzione batimetrica 0 - 20 m. Subtropical
Widespread in tropical and subtropical zones of all oceans including the western Mediterranean Sea and part of the Caribbean Sea (Ref. 3720), probably absent in the inland seas of southeastern Asia (Sulawesi Sea, Sulu Sea, Flores, Banda, Ceram and Halmahera seas (Ref. 27313)), and the Benguela Current (Ref. 4498). Eastern Pacific: Mexico to central Chile; also the Galapagos and Hawaii. Western Pacific: Japan, Marshall Islands, Philippines, Australia (Ref. 5530), and Tahiti.
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 9987); common length : 20.0 cm TL maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 5217)
Spine dorsali (totale): 0; Raggi dorsali molli (totale): 12-15; Spine anali 0; Raggi anali molli: 12 - 14; Vertebre: 43 - 46. Body dark, iridescent blue above, silvery white below; pectorals and caudal fin greyish, other fins not pigmented (Ref. 2797). Juveniles with or without black bars (Ref. 2797). Branchiostegal rays: 9-11 (Ref. 36606).
Adults occur in surface waters, both near and far from the coast (Ref. 5217). Form schools. Capable of leaping out of the water and gliding for long distances above the surface. Feed mostly on crustaceans and other planktonic animals. Preyed upon by swordfish, tunas and many other larger pelagic fishes (Ref. 9987). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 36606).
Parin, N.V., 1996. On the species composition of flying fishes (Exocoetidae) in the West-Central part of tropical Pacific. J. Ichthyol. 36(5):357-364. (Ref. 27313)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.2 - 29.2, mean 27.9 (based on 4828 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00164 - 0.01111), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.09 se; Based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Alto, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione meno di 15 mesi (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .