Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Terapontidae
(Grunters or tigerperches)
Etymology: Pelates: Greek, pelates, -ou = someone that comes near (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - ? m. Subtropical; 32°N - 33°S, 28°E - 178°W
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to southern Japan, New Guinea and Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819). Reported from Vanuatu (Ref. 13300). Migrated to the Mediterranean from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal (Ref. 5385).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
(total): 12 - 13;
soft rays: 9 - 11. Generally silver in color, with 4-6 dark horizontal lines; a black blotch behind head and below dorsal origin and another in front of dorsal fin may be present; caudal fin pale or slightly dusky (Ref. 4327).
Are coastal species often found in brackish waters; common in estuaries. They croak when taken from the water. Usually forming schools. Juveniles in seagrass beds and in mangrove bays (Ref. 48635). Feed on small fishes and invertebrates. Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 29, mean 28 (based on 1262 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00674 - 0.01868), b=3.00 (2.85 - 3.15), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.4 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .