Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Cynoglossidae
(Tonguefishes) > Symphurinae
Etymology: Symphurus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Weber.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 82 m (Ref. 26267). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: off Zanzibar, Tanzania; Viet Nam; Indonesia; northern Australia; Papua New Guinea; and eastward to Tuamoto Island and Moorea, French Polynesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.1 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26267)
Presumably frequents coastal lagoons with sandy bottom. More studies are needed concerning the ecology of this species.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Munroe, T.A. and B.N. Marsh, 1997. Taxonomic status of three nominal species of Indo-Pacific symphurine tonguefishes (Symphurus: Cynoglossidae: Pleuronectiformes). Ichthyol. Res. 44(2):189-200. (Ref. 26267)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.1 - 29, mean 28.2 (based on 1024 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .