Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Tetraodontidae
(Puffers) > Tetraodontinae
Etymology: Contusus: Latin, contusus, contundo = to crush.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 9563). Temperate
Eastern Indian Ocean: southern Australia. Southwest Pacific: New Zealand (Ref. 5755).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.4 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2156); max. reported age: 7 years (Ref. 31614)
Found in coastal waters (Ref. 9563).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Scott, T.D., C.J.M. Glover and R.V. Southcott, 1974. The marine and freshwater fishes of South Australia. A.B. James, Government Printer, South Australia. 2nd ed. 392 p. (Ref. 2156)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.4 - 23, mean 17.6 (based on 162 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02754 (0.01273 - 0.05959), b=2.88 (2.70 - 3.06), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Generation time: 4.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.25-0.33).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .