Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 30 m (Ref. 9840). Tropical
Northern Indian Ocean: Pakistan to Myanmar (range needs better definition).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 105 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 4832)
Inshore species occurring on soft substrates to at least 30 m (Ref. 9840). Enters estuaries (Ref. 4832). Found mainly on muddy bottoms to at least 40 m depth. Most likely to feed on small crustaceans (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Feeds on bottom-living invertebrates (Ref. 68964). Flesh is used as food and skin is used to produce leather (Ref. 9840).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p. (Ref. 4832)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.6 - 29.3, mean 28.6 (based on 2266 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00275 - 0.01515), b=3.11 (2.90 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .