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Larvae Information Summary for  Epinephelus malabaricus
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Main Ref: Maneewong, S., P. Akkayanont, J. Pongmaneerat and M. Iizawa 1986
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm) 2.36 2.18    
Preanal L. % TL        
Place of development  
Larval area Rearing tanks in laboratory experiments (Thailand)
Yolk-sac       Ref: 26450
Yolk   Oil globules one oil globuleposterior
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk no melanophores on head or trunk
At hatching, eyes were unpigmented and mouth was closed. The narrow straight gut was visible. The otic vesicle was seen behind the posterior region of the head. One day after hatching (2.37 mm TL), the yolk was partly absorbed but the mouth was still closed. Pectoral fins and jaw buds appeared, and a urinary bladder was visible. Anus is still closed.
Post larvae
Striking feature some dorsal fin rays very elongated
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal  
Striking feature some dorsal fin rays very elongated
Shape of gut elongated
Gas bladder   early visible late  
Spinal armature   early several different spines late several different spines
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail ventral row
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Pigmentation late
Rows on tail no rows
Other melanophores on tail one dorso-ventral cluster or band
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Urostyle region   early unpigmented late pigmented
Pectorals normal with marginal melanophores
Pelvics with elongated fin rays  
Two days after hatching (2.5 mm TL), the yolk was mostly absorbed and the oil globule reduced to a negligible size. The mouth and anus opened. The eyes were pigmented. Melanophores appeared midway along the dorsal and ventral portion of both the body and the alimentary canal. Some melanophores were also observed at the ventral side of the tail. On day 5 (2.80 mm TL), the buds of the second dorsal and ventral spines appeared. The melanophores increased and were almost wholly distributed midway of the body and at the alimentary canal. On day 7 (3.30 mm TL), the ventral spines began to project out of the finfold. On day 10 (3.65 mm TL), the second dorsal spine began to project out of the finfold. The ventral spines extended and had some melanophores on their tips. On day 15 (4.20 mm TL), the first dorsal spine appeared. The second dorsal spine had some melanophores on its tip. The gill arches developed. Many spinelets appeared on the anterior and posterior margins of both the second dorsal and the ventral spines. On day 20 (6.00 mm TL), the third dorsal spine appeared. The caudal anlage appeared and some caudal rays were shown at the ventral portion of the tail. A long spine developed at the posterior margin of the preoperculum, and a short spine above the orbits. The nares appeared as a single opening. Around this age, the length of the long dorsal spine became nearly identical to that of the ventral spines. On day 24 (9.87 mm TL), the larvae possessed the adult dorsal (XI,15), ventral (I,5), and anal (III,8) fins. The nares began to constrict at the center. Many melanophores appeared on the surface of caudal peduncle. The dorsal second spine became longer than the ventral spines. On day 45 (17.0 mm TL), the adult pectral 17 and caudal 21fins are in place. The spines and rays of each fin became differentiated as in the adult. The length of the second dorsal and ventral spines became shorter in comparison to the total body length. The melanophores were well developed on the dorsal surface of the body, and especially on the top of the head and on the operculum. On day 60 (28.0 mm TL), metamorphosis is completed. The lateral lines were clearly visible. The body pigmentation was accomplished with numerous melanophores distributed all over the body.
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae
max     Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod     Sep Oct Nov Dec
Similar species 1 4461Epinephelustauvina
Remarks
Melanophores were distributed midway along the dorsal and ventral portion on both the body and the alimentary canal of E. malabaricus at 2 days after hatching, while the melanophores are absent on the dorsal portion of the body at early larval stages of E. tauvina.
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Luna,Susan M. - 26.03.02
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