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Larvae Information Summary for  Alosa sapidissima
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Main Ref: Jones, P.W., F.D. Martin and J.D. Hardy Jr. 1978
Yolk-sac larvae
  max min mod Ref.
Length at birth (mm) 10 5.7    
Preanal L. % TL     70 4639
Place of development planktonic
Larval area Mid-Atlantic Bight (Delaware Bay)
Yolk-sac spherical   pigmented Ref:  
Yolk   Oil globules no oil globule
Rows on tail ventral + lateral row
Other melanophores on tail tail partly covered with melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on trunk
Body slender, depth in advanced specimens 0.05 of TL. In newly hatched, yolk is subspherical; head detached from yolk; mouth open but without free passage through esophagus; eyes large, dark, protuberant. By 3rd day, jaws, gill arches, and 2 pairs of recurved teeth in lower jaw forming; incipient rays of pectorals formed; notochord thick, distinctly granular; gut striated; renal apparatus conspicuous, extending from above yolk to anus. Pigmentation: Body is transparent. Yolk sac covered with diffuse network of stellate chromatophores. Mid-ventral line of pigment sometimes present on isthmus. A line of chromatophores along juncture of yolk sac and body and continuing along junction of intestine and body to anus. A closely approximated double line of pigment on ventral aspect of intestine from 18th myomere to anus. A fine network of pigment usually present on lateral surface of intestine, most dense near anus. Stellate chromatophores on lateral surfaces of body, mostly between level of notochord and intestine, extending from yolk to beyond anus. Few spots above and below notochord in area of future caudal fin.
Post larvae
Striking feature none
Striking shape lateral normal (not striking) dorsal normal (not striking)
Striking feature none
Shape of gut tube-like
Gas bladder   early visible late  
Spinal armature   early no spines late no spines
Pigmentation early
Rows on tail ventral + lateral row
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Pigmentation late
Rows on tail ventral + lateral row
Other melanophores on tail no other melanophores
Melanophores on head + trunk melanophores on head + trunk
Peritoneum with row of melanophores
Pectorals normal melanophores at fin base
Pelvics normal (i.e. small or absent) without melanophores
Body long and slender, increasing in relative depth throughout stage. Auditory vesicles still evident at 21.0 mm. Gas bladder evident by 14 mm TL. Pigmentation: Up to 13 mm TL, two lines of pigment beginning at pectoral bases and continuing along venter and intestine diverge rapidly causing both lines to exhibit a double bending, appearing as short dashes; pigment on isthmus decreased; a line of chromatophores ventrolaterally between head and caudal peduncle. At 14-16 mm TL, diverging lines of pigment along venter generally terminating at 14th or 15th myomere; chromatophores sometimes present along dorsal wall of intestine between dorsal fin and anus; few chromatophores on caudal fin. Larger specimens highly variable; additional pigment develops on snout, operculum, and dorsal surfaces of head and body. Specimens from freshwater more heavily pigmented than those from brackish water. Sequence of fin development: By 14 mm TL, finfold greatly reduced; anlagen of dorsal fin developed; incipient caudal rays formed; urostyle directed slightly upward; rudimentary pelvics evident at 18 mm; preanal finfold retained throughout stage. At 21-22.9 mm, pectorals and ventrals still developing.
Meristic characters
  max min mod Ref.
Total number of myomeres 57 55   4639
  L 1st feeding Ref. Months of presence of larvae
max     Jan Feb Mar Apr
min   May Jun Jul Aug
mod     Sep Oct Nov Dec
Water parameters     Metric characters
Entered by: Garilao,Cristina V. - 16.04.99
Modified by: Luna,Susan M. - 29.01.02
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