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References using Merluccius bilinearis
Ref No. Description Page
000068  Fahay, M.,1983 Guide to the early stages of marine fishes occuring in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Cape Hatteras to the Southern Scotian Shelf. J. Northwest Atl. Fish. Sci. 4:1-423. 186-187
000171  Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter,1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p.
000205  Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen,1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. 374; 568
000276  Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott,1980 A list of common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (12)1-174. 30
001371  Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba,1990 FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. 334;fig.729
002209  Hinegardner, R. and D.E. Rosen,1972 Cellular DNA content and the evolution of teleostean fishes. Amer. Nat. 106(951):621-644.
003383  Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,1990 Multilingual dictionary of fish and fish products. Fishing News Books, Oxford.
004517  Hureau, J.-C.,1991 La base de données GICIM : Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. p. 225-227. In Atlas Préliminaire des Poissons d'Eau Douce de France. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche, Ministère de l'Environnement, CEMAGREF et Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.
004587  Pauly, D.,1989 Food consumption by tropical and temperate fish populations: some generalizations. J. Fish Biol. 35(Suppl.A):11-20.
004638  Pauly, D. and R.S.V. Pullin,1988 Hatching time in spherical, pelagic, marine fish eggs in response to temperature and egg size. Environ. Biol. Fish. 22(4):261-271.
004643  Hardy, J.D. Jr.,1978 Development of fishes of Mid-Atlantic Bight. An atlas of egg, larval, and juvenile stages. Vol. 2. Anguillidae through Syngnathidae. U.S. Fish Wildl. Ser. Biol. Serv. Program FWS/OBS-78/12. 394 p.
004883  Bykov, V.P.,1983 Marine Fishes: Chemical composition and processing properties. New Delhi: Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. 322 p.
004922  Stillwell, C.E. and N.E. Kohler,1982 Food, feeding habits, and estimates of daily ration of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) in the Northwest Atlantic. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39(3):407-414. 407-414
004931  FAO,1992 FAO yearbook. Fishery statistics: catches and landings. Vol. 70: 1990. FAO Fish. Ser. 38:647 p.
005515  Anonymous,1993 Computerized catalog of the fish collection. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California.
005760  Erzini, K.,1991 A compilation of data on variability in length-age in marine fishes. Fisheries Stock Assessment, Title XII, Collaborative Research Support Program, University of Rhode Island. Working paper 77, 36p.
005841  Mari, A. and R. Dominguez,1979 Distribucion, edad y crecimiento de la merluza plateada (Merluccius bilinearis) en la plataforma de Nueva Escocia. Rev. Cub. Inv. Pesq. 4:78-106.
005951  Scott, W.B. and M.G. Scott,1988 Atlantic fishes of Canada. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 219:731 p. 278-280
005969  Kotlyar, A.N.,1984 Dictionary of names of marine fishes on the six languages. All Union Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, Moscow. 288 p. 57
006313  Grabda, E. and T. Heese,1991 Polskie nazewnictwo popularne kraglouste i ryby. Cyclostomata et Pisces. Wyzsza Szkola Inzynierska w Koszalinie. Koszalin, Poland. 171 p. (in Polish).
007251  Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray,1986 A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. 94
008984  FAO,1994 FAO Yearbook. Fishery statistics: catches and landings. Vol. 74: 1992. FAO Fish. Ser. 43:677 p.
009714  Hesler, T.E., F.P. Almeida and D.E. Waldron,1995 Biology and fisheries of north-west Atlantic hake (silver hake: M. bilinearis). p. 203-237. In J. Alheit and T.J. Pitcher (eds.) Hake:Biology, fisheries and markets. Chapman & Hall, London, 478 p.
009988  Frimodt, C.,1995 Multilingual illustrated guide to the world's commercial coldwater fish. Fishing News Books, Osney Mead, Oxford, England. 215 p. 176
010232  Fanning, L.P., D.E. Waldron and C. Bourbonnais,1987 Scotian shelf silver hake population size in 1986. NAFO SCR Doc. 87/56:24 p.
010233  Almeida, F.P.,1987 Status of the silver hake resource off the Northeast coast of the United States --1987. Woods Hole Lab. Ref. Doc. No. 87-03. 60 p.
010854  Caddy, J. and O. Defeo,1996 Fitting the exponential and logistic yield models with mortality rate: some explorations and new perspectives. Fish. Res. 25(1):39-62.
010937  Anonymous,1996 Fish collection database of the University of British Columbia Fish Museum Fish Museum. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
011063  Myers, R.A., J. Bridson and N.J. Barrowman,1995 Summary of worldwide spawner and recruitment data. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2024. 274 p.
011175  Anonymous,1990 Report of the Eleventh NEFC Stock Assessment Workshop Fall1990. NEFC Ref. Doc 90-09.
011209  Waldron, D.E., M.A. Showell and G. Harrison,1991 Status of the Scotian shelf silver hake (whiting) population in 1990. NAFO SCR Doc. 91/42:34 p.; NAFO SCR Doc. 92/50.
012186  O'Brien, L., J. Burnett and R.K. Mayo,1993 Maturation of nineteen species of finfish off the northeast coast of the United States, 1985-1990. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 113, 66 p.
012286  Rachlin, J.W. and B.E. Warkentine,1990 Reexamination of some population dynamics of the silver hake in the New York Bight. Northeastern Environ. Sci. 9(1/2):66-68.
012287  Schaefer, R.H.,1960 Growth and feeding habits of the whiting or silver hake in the New York Bight. N.Y. Fish and Game Jour. 7:85-98.
012965  Eschmeyer, W.N.,1997 PISCES. Eschmeyer's PISCES database as published on the Internet in June 1997, URL: gopher://
026388  Sanches, J.G.,1989 Nomenclatura Portuguesa de organismos aquáticos (proposta para normalização estatística). Publ. Avuls. Inst. Nac. Invest. Pescas 14:322 p. 96
027363  Nakamura, I., T. Inada, M. Takeda and H. Hatanaka,1986 Important fishes trawled off Patagonia. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Tokyo. 369 p. 125
027549  Murdy, E.O., R.S. Birdsong and J.A. Musick,1997 Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. Smithsonian Institution Press Washington and London. 324 p. 114
028087  Scott, W.B. and S.N. Tibbo,1968 Food and feeding habits of swordfish, Xiphias gladius, in the western north Atlantic. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 25(5):903-919. 906
028113  Stillwell, C.E. and N.E. Kohler,1993 Food habits of the sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus off the U.S. northeast coast, with estimates of daily ration. Fish. Bull. 91:138-150. 141
031517  Wu, H.L., K.-T. Shao and C.F. Lai (eds.),1999 Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan. 1028 p.
031522  Gibbons, S.,1999 Collect fish on stamps. Stanley Gibbons Ltd., London and Ringwood. 418 p.
031982  Anonymous,1999 Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)). Natural History Museum, London (formerly British Museum of Natural History (BMNH)).
032891  Helser, T.E.,1996 Growth of silver hake within the U.S. continental shelf ecoystem of the northwest Atlantic Ocean. J. Fish Biol. 48(6):1059-1073.
033276  Inada, T.,1981 Studies on the merlucciid fishes. Bull. Far Seas Fish. Res. Lab. (18):1-172. 31,120
034634  Anonymous,2000 Fish collection database of the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (GCRL), Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA.
035509  Anonymous,2000 Fish collection database of the Intitut fur Seefischerei (ISH). BIOLAB Forschungsinstitut, Hohenwestedt, Germany.
035884  Buckel, J.A., M.J. Fogarty and D.O. Conover,1999 Foraging habits of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, on the U.S. east coast continental shelf. Fish. Bull. 97:758-775. 762
036670  Anonymous,2000 Fish collection database of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa.
037201  Bowman, R.E.,1984 Food of silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis. Fish. Bull. 82(1):21-35. 26;tab.3
037512  Bowman, R.E., C.E. Stillwell, W.L. Michaels and M.D. Grosslein,2000 Food of northwest Atlantic fishes and two common species of squid. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NE 155, 138 p.
038499  Garrison, L.P. and J.S. Link,2000 Diets of five hake species in the northeast United States continental shelf ecosystem. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 204:243-255. 248;fig.5A
038732  Anonymous,2001 Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). Smithsonian Institution-Division of Fishes.
039017  Colton, J.B. Jr. and R.R. Marak,1969 Guide for identifying the common planktonic fish eggs and larvae of continental shelf waters, Cape Sable to Bloc Island. U.S. Bur. Commer. Fish. Biol. Lab. Ref. 69-9. 43 p. 18
039152  Stancioiu, S.,1987 Ihtiologie sistematica. MEI-Universitatea din Galati, Atelierul de multiplicare-legatorie, Cda. Nr. 1785/3,03,86.
039467  Scotton, L.N., R.E. Smith, N.S. Smith, K.S. Price and D.P. de Sylva,1973 Pictorial guide to fish larvae of Delaware Bay: with information and bibliographies useful for the study of fish larvae. Delaware Bay Report Series. Vol. 7. College of Marine Studies, University of Delaware. 205 p. 150-151
039531  Crespo, J., J. Gajate and R. Ponce,2001 Clasificación científica e identificación de nombres vernáculos existentes en la base de datos de seguimiento informático de recursos naturales oceánicos. Instituto Español de Oceanografia, Madrid, Spain. 414 p. 87
040637  IGFA,2001 Database of IGFA angling records until 2001. IGFA, Fort Lauderdale, USA.
040919  Anonymous,2001 Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen.
041414  Anonymous,2002 Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West , NY 10024-5192, USA.
042147  Chase, B.C.,2002 Differences in diet of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) at five seasonal feeding grounds on the New England continental shelf. Fish. Bull. 100(2):168-180. 172
043202  Andriyashev, A.P. and N.V. Chernova,1995 Annotated list of fishlike vertebrates and fish of the arctic seas and adjacent waters. J. Ichthyol. 35(1):81-123. 101
043374  Mertz, G. and R.A. Myers,1996 Influence of fecundity on recruitment variability of marine fish. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 53:1618-1625. 1620
043399  Morse, W.W., D.L. Johnson, P.L. Berrien and S.J. Wilk,1999 Silver hake, Merluccius bilinearis, life history and habitat characteristics. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NE-135, 42 p. 1-42
047438  Anonymous,2003 Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum. Royal Ontario Museum.
047487  Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung,2003 Verzeichnis der Handelsbezeichnungen für Erzeugnisse der Fischerei und der Aquakultur. Retrieved 17 June 2003, from 6
048321  Ricker, W.E.,1973 Russian-English dictionary for students of fisheries and aquatic biology. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa. 142
051243  Riede, K.,2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p.
051471  Carl, H.,2003 Danish fish names. Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Unpublished.
052299  Nelson, J.S., E.J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Pérez, L.T. Findley, C.R. Gilbert, R.N. Lea and J.D. Williams,2004 Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. ix, 386 p. + 1 CD. 94
054581  FAO-FIGIS,2001 A world overview of species of interest to fisheries. Chapter: Merluccius bilinearis. Retrieved on 15 June 2005, from 2p. FIGIS Species Fact Sheets. Species Identification and Data Programme-SIDP, FAO-FIGIS 1
056601  Vinogradov, V.I. and N.A. Kozachenko,1989 To the methods of assessment of the anual food consumption for hake population on Georges Bank. P. 140-150 in Podrazhanskaya, S.G., A.A. Neyman and M.I. Tarverdieva (Eds.). Diurnal rhythms and diets of commercial fishes of the World Ocean. Moscow, VNIRO. 140-150
057879  Chinese Academy of Fishery Science (CAFS),2007 Database of genetic resources of aquatic organisms in China (as of January 2007). Chinese Academy of Fishery Science.
058108  Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences,2003 Chinese aquatic germplasm resources database.
058452  Lloris, D., J. Matallanas and P. Oliver,2005 Hakes of the world (Family Merlucciidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of hake species known to date. FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. 2:57p. Rome: FAO. 24-26
075549  FAO-FIES,2008 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, 29 April 2008.
082057  Ministero Delle Politiche Agricole Alimantari e Forestali,2008 Elenco delle denominazioni in lingua Italiana: Delle specieittiche di interesse commerciale. Gazzetta Ufficiale Repubblica Italiana. Serie generale N. 45. 14
083882  FAO-FIES,2010 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2010.
086779  Collette, B.B. and G. Klein-MacPhee (eds.),2002 Bigelow and Schroeder’s fishes of the Gulf of Maine, third ed. Caldwell, N.J. : Blackburn Press, 577 p.: ill.; 27 cm. 219
090062  FAO-FIES,2012 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, March 2012.
093252  Murdy, E.O. and J.A. Musick,2013 Field guide to fishes of the Chesapeake Bay. JHU Press, 360 p. 113;Drawing
095632  FAO-FIES,2014 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, April 2014.
101110  FAO-FIES,2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
105471  eElurikkus,2015 eElurikkus koondab ühte portaali Eesti eluslooduse andmed.
105472  Pihu, E.,1979 Loomade elu 4. köide. Kalad Pihu, E. 1979. Loomade Elu, 4. Köide, Kalad. Valgus, Tallinn.
107945  Cheung, W.L., R. Watson and D. Pauly,2013 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature 497:365-368.
115257  FAO-FIES,2017 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from (accessed 08/06/2017).
118272  FAO-FIES,2018 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from htttps:// [accessed May, 2018]
118628  Palomares, M.L.D., R. Froese, B. Derrick, S.-L. Nöel, G. Tsui, J. Woroniak and D. Pauly,2018 A preliminary global assessment of the status of exploited marine fish and invertebrate populations. A report prepared by the Sea Around Us for OCEANA. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, p. 64.
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