Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacep├Ęde, 1802)
Blue-and-yellow grouper
photo by Field, R.

Family:  Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets), subfamily: Epinephelinae
Max. size:  90 cm TL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 15 kg
Environment:  reef-associated; depth range 10 - 150 m
Distribution:  Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden south to Port Alfred, South Africa and east to the northwest tip of Sumatra, Indonesia. Also found in the islands of western Indian Ocean, including Cargados Carajos and Rodriguez. Not known from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 11-11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-17; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 8-8. Adults have yellow fins. Small juveniles about half blue, half yellow (Ref. 48635); distinguished by having sky blue color of head and body in juveniles to dark bluish violet or dark greyish blue in adults; yellow upper lip; ctenoid scales on body except cycloid scales anterodorsally above lateral line and on thorax and abdomen; body of adult with numerous auxiliary scales; moderately deep bodied, greatest depth 2.4-2.8 in SL; truncate to slightly emarginate caudal fin; pelvic fins 1.7-2.0 in head length (Ref. 90102); further characterized by having head length 2.4-2.7 times in SL; preorbital depth 6.8-8.8 times in head length for fish 36-66 cm SL; interorbital area convex; adults posterior nostrils 4-5 times larger than anterior nostrils; subangular preopercle, serrae at angle enlarged; straight to slightly convex upper edge of operculum; maxilla reaches to or slightly past vertical at rear edge of eye; 2-4 rows of teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw (Ref. 89707).
Biology:  Juveniles inhabit shallow reefs while adults are found on deeper reefs. Feeds on a variety of fishes, crabs, shrimps, spiny lobsters, squids, and small octopi. Solitary (Ref 90102).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 22 November 2016 Ref. (120744)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   
 

Entered by: Capuli, Estelita Emily - 12.02.93
Modified by: Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei - 08.03.13
Checked by: Garilao, Cristina V. - 15.01.97

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