Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758)
European anchovy
Engraulis encrasicolus
photo by Dammous, S.

Family:  Engraulidae (Anchovies), subfamily: Engraulinae
Max. size:  20 cm SL (male/unsexed); max.weight: 21.1 g; max. reported age: 5 years
Environment:  pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 400 m, oceanodromous
Distribution:  Eastern Atlantic: Bergen, Norway to East London, South Africa (perhaps reaching Durban) (Ref. 10000). Also all of Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas, with stray individuals in Suez Canal and Gulf of Suez; also recorded from St. Helena (Ref. 189). Reported from Estonia (Ref. 33247).
Diagnosis:  Dorsal spines (total): 0-0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 16-18; Anal spines: 0-0; Anal soft rays: 13-15; Vertebrae: 46-47. Snout pointed; maxilla short, tip blunt, reaching almost to front border of pre-operculum, not projecting beyond tip of second supra-maxilla; tip of lower jaw reaching almost to below nostril. Gill rakers present on hind face of third epibranchial. Pseudobranch longer than eye, reaching onto inner face of operculum. A silver stripe along flank, disappearing with age.
Biology:  Mainly a coastal marine species, forming large schools. Tolerates salinities of 5-41 ppt and in some areas, enters lagoons, estuaries and lakes, especially during spawning. Tends to move further north and into surface waters in summer, retreating and descending in winter. Feeds on planktonic organisms. Spawns from April to November with peaks usually in the warmest months. Eggs are ellipsoidal to oval, floating in the upper 50 m and hatching in 24-65 hours. Marketed fresh, dried, smoked, canned and frozen; made into fish meal (Ref. 9987).
IUCN Red List Status: Least Concern (LC); Date assessed: 23 May 2013 Ref. (120744)
Threat to humans:  harmless
Country info:   
 

Entered by: Binohlan, Crispina B. - 17.10.90
Modified by: Valdestamon, Roxanne Rei - 12.02.14
Checked by: Binohlan, Crispina B. - 08.07.94

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