||Cichlidae (Cichlids), subfamily: Pseudocrenilabrinae
||6.37 cm SL (male/unsexed)
||Africa: endemic to Lake Bermin, Cameroon (Ref. 52307, 81260).
Dorsal spines (total): 14-16; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-11; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 7-8. Diagnosis: lower pharyngeal jaw robust and massive, with a large, heart-shaped dentigerous plate, covered with numerous fine, regularly arrayed teeth; mouth not squared or obtuse; ventral margin of lower lip smooth; ratio of lower jaw length to lower jaw width > 1; oral jaw teeth fixed with non-spatulate crowns (Ref. 26738, 81260). 13-16 gill rakers on first arch (Ref. 26738).
Description: head length 34.4-38.5% SL; lower pharyngeal jaw with curved unicuspid anterior teeth, bicuspid posterior teeth; ventral keel shorter than dentigerous plate; 3 rows of teeth in upper jaw, outer row teeth bicuspid (Ref. 81260).
Coloration: three colour forms are present in the lake and as far as can be determined they do not exhibit assortative mating. (1) "Normal" form: base body color greenish brown dorsally, blood-red ventrally; snout and dorsum of head greenish brown (Ref. 81260). Upper lip black, lower lip pale (Ref. 52307, 81260) with turquoise iridescence (Ref. 81260); cheek and opercle blood-red ventrally, becoming yellowish green dorsally; chest bright blood-red; 5-6 faint vertical bars often present on flanks (Ref. 81260). Dorsal fin yellowish brown; anal fin red with dusky black distal margin; caudal fin yellow-brown with dusky black distal margin and red ventral lobe (Ref. 52307, 81260). Pelvics smoky red; pectoral base yellow, fin smoky brown (Ref. 81260). (2) "Bronze" form: base body color bronze-brown dorsally, yellowish bronze ventrally; snout and dorsum of head brownish black; upper lip black, lower lip pale with turquoise iridescence; cheek and opercle reddish bronze; chest yellow-bronze; 5-6 faint vertical bars often present on flanks; dorsal fin brownish bronze; caudal fin brown with smoky distal margin; anal fin brown with smoky black distal margin; pelvics smoky grey; pectoral base yellow, fin pale smoky yellow; this is a common female coloration, but individuals exhibiting "normal" or "pale" coloration are known to occur (Ref. 81260). (3) "Pale" form: base body color pale brown dorsally, silvery grey ventrally (Ref. 52307, 81260). Snout and upper lip smoky grey, lower lip silvery white; throat, chest and belly silvery white; dorsal fin pale brownish yellow with red tinge to lappets; prominent "tilapia spot" usually present; caudal fin margin with reddish tinge; anal, pelvic and pectoral fins transparent (Ref. 81260).
||Prefers sponges, but small amounts of diatoms, plants (mostly algae) and detritus have also been found in their stomachs (Ref. 52307). Pair-bonding, open (Ref. 52307) substrate brooder/spawner (Ref. 52307, 81260) with both parents guarding the brood (Ref. 52307). Usually spawns in shallow waters, building colonies of up to 6 pairs separated by about 30 cm; eggs are hidden between leaves and pieces of wood (Ref. 52307).
|IUCN Red List Status:
Critically Endangered (CR); Date assessed: 16 February 2009 (B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)) Ref. (120744)
|Threat to humans:
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