Ecology of Engraulis encrasicolus
 
Main Ref. Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988
Distribution
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
Brackishwater
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
Freshwater
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Engraulis encrasicolus may be found.
Remarks Also recorded down to 400 m depth off West Africa and descending in winter to 100 to 159 m depth in the Mediterranean; euryhaline, tolerating salinities of 5 to 41 o/oo and in some areas entering lagoons, estuaries or lakes, especially in the warmer months during the spawning season. A tendency to extend into more northern waters in summer and generally to move into the surface layers, retreating and descending in winter (Ref. 189). 90% of the diet consisted of meso- and macrozooplankton (Ref. 42649).

Substrate

Substrate
Substrate Ref.
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.

Associations

Ref.
Associations
Associated with
Association remarks
Parasitism

Feeding

Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type ref Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988
Feeding habit selective plankton feeding
Feeding habit ref Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988
Trophic level(s)
Original sample Unfished population Remark
Estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition
Ref.
From individual food items 3.12 0.36 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Binohlan, Crispina B. on 10.19.90
Modified by Capuli, Estelita Emily on 04.03.09
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