Ecology of Epinephelus tukula
 
Main Ref. Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993
Distribution
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
Brackishwater
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
Freshwater
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Epinephelus tukula may be found.
Remarks Mainly found in deep reef channels and seamounts, in current prone areas (Ref. 48635). Juveniles may be found in tide pools (Ref. 5222). Also in the external areas around coral reefs (Ref. 9137). Feed on reef fishes, skates, crabs, and spiny lobsters (Ref. 5222). Considered to be exceedingly territorial and very aggressive towards intruders. Vulnerable to spear fishers (Ref. 5222). Large adults would be potential predators of small Latimeria (Ref. 58472). Hand fed by divers in certain areas, but potentially dangerous to the inexperienced.

Substrate

Substrate Benthic;
Substrate Ref.
Special habitats Coral Reefs;
Special habitats Ref. Letourneur, Y., P. Chabanet, P. Durville, M. Taquet, E. Teissier, M. Parmentier, J.-C. Quéro and K. Pothin, 2004

Associations

Ref.
Associations
Associated with
Association remarks
Parasitism

Feeding

Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type ref Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit ref Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993
Trophic level(s)
Original sample Unfished population Remark
Estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition
Ref.
From individual food items 4.20 0.68 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Sta. Iglesia, Drina on 11.13.00
Modified by Ortañez, Auda Kareen on 11.19.08
Checked by Sta. Iglesia, Drina on 11.26.00
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