Ecology of Epinephelus areolatus
 
Main Ref. Kailola, P.J., M.J. Williams, P.C. Stewart, R.E. Reichelt, A. McNee and C. Grieve, 1993
Distribution
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
Brackishwater
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
Freshwater
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Epinephelus areolatus may be found.
Remarks Usually found in seagrass beds or on fine sediment bottoms near rocky reefs, dead coral, or alcyonarians (Ref. 5222), in shallow continental shelf waters (Ref. 27353). Juveniles are common at water depths to 80 m (Ref. 6390). Probably spawn during restricted periods and form aggregations when doing so (Ref. 27352). Eggs and early larvae are probably pelagic (Ref. 6390). Feed on fish and benthic invertebrates, primarily prawns and crabs (Ref. 4787, 27354). Feed in water to more than 100 m depth (Ref. 27354). Probably make frequent use of shelters, suggesting an 'ambush' method of feeding (Ref. 6390).

Substrate

Substrate Benthic; Soft Bottom: sand; silt; Hard Bottom;
Substrate Ref. Broad, G., 2003
Special habitats Beds: sea grass; Coral Reefs;
Special habitats Ref. Broad, G., 2003

Associations

Ref.
Associations
Associated with
Association remarks
Parasitism

Feeding

Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type ref Randall, J.E. and P.C. Heemstra, 1991
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit ref Randall, J.E. and P.C. Heemstra, 1991
Trophic level(s)
Original sample Unfished population Remark
Estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition 3.74 0.30 3.46 0.46 Troph of juv./adults from 2 studies.
Ref. Salini, J.P., S.J.M. Blaber and D.T. Brewer, 1994
From individual food items 3.90 0.66 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 346)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Luna, Susan M. on 10.02.98
Modified by OrtaƱez, Auda Kareen on 11.18.08
Checked by Sta. Iglesia, Drina on 06.06.01
Comments & Corrections
 
Sign our Guest Book 
Back to Search
cfm script by eagbayani,  ,  php script by rolavides, 2/5/2008 ,  last modified by mbactong, 10/24/19