Epinephelus tukula was reported from 35 countries/islands


Table 1: the species is currently present in 33 of them (endemic, native, introduced);
Table 2: possible in 2 of them (stray, questionable);
Table 3: absent from 0 of them (extirpated, not established, misidentification, error).
Table 4: all reports listed together.

Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to southern Japan and Queensland, Australia. Also from the Paracel Islands in the South China Sea. There are no records from Madagascar, Mauritius, Maldives, Laccadives, and Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
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Table 1: Present in 33 countries/islands (endemic, native, introduced)
Continent Country Occurrence Main Ref.
Oceania Australia AUS native 75154
Asia Christmas I. CXR native 30874
Africa Comoros COM native 58472
Africa Djibouti DJI native 5222
Africa Egypt EGY native 5222
Africa Eritrea ERI native 5222
Asia Hong Kong HKG native 27253
Asia India IND native 45255
Asia Indonesia IDN native 47567
Asia Israel ISR native 5222
Asia Japan JPN native 5222
Asia Jordan JOR native 5222
Africa Kenya KEN native 4787
Africa Madagascar MDG native 12484
Asia Maldives MDV native 89707
Africa Mayotte MYT native 97629
Africa Mozambique MOZ native 5213
Asia Oman OMN native 11441
Asia Pakistan PAK native 5222
Oceania Palau PLW native 103126
Oceania Papua New Guinea PNG native 41468
Africa Réunion REU native 53568
Asia Ryukyu Is. RYU native 5222
Asia Saudi Arabia SAU native 5222
Africa Seychelles SYC native 4787
Africa Socotra Arch SOC native 37631
Africa South Africa ZAF native 4787
Asia Sri Lanka LKA native 45255
Africa Sudan SDN native 5222
Asia Taiwan TWN native 5222
Africa Tanzania TZA native 4787
Asia Timor-Leste TLS Native 118793
Asia Yemen YEM native 37631

Table 2: Possible in 2 countries/islands (stray, questionable)
Continent Country Occurrence Main Ref.
Africa Mauritius MUS questionable 58078
Africa Somalia SOM questionable 12484

Table 4: Reported from 35 countries/islands.
Continent Country Occurrence Main Ref.
Oceania Australia AUS native 75154
Asia Christmas I. CXR native 30874
Africa Comoros COM native 58472
Africa Djibouti DJI native 5222
Africa Egypt EGY native 5222
Africa Eritrea ERI native 5222
Asia Hong Kong HKG native 27253
Asia India IND native 45255
Asia Indonesia IDN native 47567
Asia Israel ISR native 5222
Asia Japan JPN native 5222
Asia Jordan JOR native 5222
Africa Kenya KEN native 4787
Africa Madagascar MDG native 12484
Asia Maldives MDV native 89707
Africa Mauritius MUS questionable 58078
Africa Mayotte MYT native 97629
Africa Mozambique MOZ native 5213
Asia Oman OMN native 11441
Asia Pakistan PAK native 5222
Oceania Palau PLW native 103126
Oceania Papua New Guinea PNG native 41468
Africa Réunion REU native 53568
Asia Ryukyu Is. RYU native 5222
Asia Saudi Arabia SAU native 5222
Africa Seychelles SYC native 4787
Africa Socotra Arch SOC native 37631
Africa Somalia SOM questionable 12484
Africa South Africa ZAF native 4787
Asia Sri Lanka LKA native 45255
Africa Sudan SDN native 5222
Asia Taiwan TWN native 5222
Africa Tanzania TZA native 4787
Asia Timor-Leste TLS Native 118793
Asia Yemen YEM native 37631
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The map in this page was supported by BioFresh that has received funding from the
European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 226874

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